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Nota Padat Fizik F4 Forces and Pressure Notes

# Nota Padat Fizik F4 Forces and Pressure Notes

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11/04/2012

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3 FORCES AND PRESSURE
3.1 UNDERSTANDING PRESSURE1. Define Pressure Pressure is force per unit area2. State pressure’sformula Pressure = ForceArea
AP
=
The SI unit : Nm
-2
= Pascal = Pa3. State relationshipbetween pressure andarea.The pressure of a given force increases as thesurface area decreases.4. Describe applications involving High PressureIncreasing the pressure by reducing the areaA sharp knife has a verysmall surface area on itscutting edge so that highpressure can be exertedto cut the meat.The studs on a footballboot have only a smallarea of contact with theground. The pressureunder the studs is highenough for them tosink into the ground,which gives extra grip.Nails, needles andpins have very sharpends with very smallsurface areas. Whena force is applied tothe head of a nail, thepressure will drive itssharp end into apiece of wood easily.The sole of an ice is fixeda narrow metal bar. Thehigh pressure on surfaceof the ice so that the icemelts and allowing theice skater to glidesmoothly .Racing bicycles needvery high air pressureinside the tyres,because the narrowtyres have a very smallcontact area with theroad. The hard roadsurface can supportthe high pressureunder the wheels.
37

5. Application involving Low PressureReducing the pressure by increasing the areaSkis have a large area toreduce the pressure onthe snow so that they donot sink in too far.A tractor moving onsoft ground has widetires to reduce thepressure on theground so that theywill not sink into theground.A wide shoulder padof a heavy bag willreduce the pressureexerted on theshoulder of theperson carrying thebag.Example 1A block of metal of dimensions 0.5 m x 0.6 mx 1.0 m has a mass of 300 kg. Calculate themaximum pressureacting on the ground.A student pressing a thumbtackinto a piece of wood with a force of 20 N. The surface area of the headof the thumbtack is 1 cm
2
and thecross-sectional area of the tip of thethumbtack is 0.01 cm
2
.Calculate:(a) the pressure exerted by thestudent’s thumb on the headof the thumbtack(b) the pressure of the tip of thethumbtack on the wood.(c) What conclusion can bedrawn from your answers to(a) and (b)?
38

3.2 UNDERSTANDING PRESSURE IN LIQUIDS
39
What ispressure inliquid?A liquid in a container exerts pressure because of itsweight.For example, if you try to put your finger over the end of atap when it is turned on, you can feel the pressure of thewater in the pipe.Characteristics of Pressure in a liquid.The pressure at anypoint in a liquid, at aparticular depth, actsequally in alldirections.The pressure in a liquiddoes not depend on thearea of its surface.The pressure in a liquidacts equally in alldirections and does notdepend on the shape of the container.Relate depthto pressurein a liquid .The pressure in a liquid is directlyproportional to the depth.The pressure in a liquid increases withdepth.Relatedensity topressure ina liquidThe pressure in a liquid isdirectly proportional to thedensity of the liquid.Derive the formula for the pressure in aliquid.The container on the right has a base area
A
. It isfilled to a depth
h
with a liquid of density

ρ
.Calculate:(a) volume of liquid = Ah(b)mass of liquid =
ρ
V =
ρ
Ah(c) weight of liquid = mg =
ρ
Ahg(d)force on base =
ρ
Ahg(e) pressure =
gh A Ahg A
ρ  ρ
==

Pressure in liquid =
ρ
gh