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Growth Kinetics

Growth Kinetics

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Published by Santhosh Kalash
This is notes on Growth kinetics. Published by GATE HELPLINE.
This is notes on Growth kinetics. Published by GATE HELPLINE.

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Published by: Santhosh Kalash on Aug 27, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/14/2014

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GATE HELPLINE
Growth kinetics of Bacteria in Batch culture
Growth curve for a bacterial population is obtained from the batch culture where the nutrient is addedonly once.1) Lag phase
 
Occurs immediately after the inoculation and is a period of adaption of cells to a newenvironment.
 
Microorganism reorganizes their molecular constituents when they are transferred to a newmedium.
 
Cell mass increases but not cell number density.
 
Pseudolag phase
occurs when the inoculum is small and has low fraction of cells that are viable.
 
This phase may prolong because of low nutrient concentration or growth factors or even theaged cells will proceed this lag phase for long.
 
Diauxic growth
is defined as the multiple lag phases occur when the medium contains morethan one carbon source. This is caused by a shift in metabolic pathways in the middle of thegrowth cycle.2) Exponential phase (logarithmic growth phase)
 
Cells adjusted to the new environment starts to multiple faster and therefore both cell mass andcell number increases exponentially with time.
 
Balanced growth comes when all the components of a cell grow at the same rate. Averagecomposition of a single cell remains approximately constant during this phase of growth.µ
net
=
ௗ௑ௗ௧
 
net specific growth rate (h
-1
). Where X is the cell mass concentration (g/l), tis time (h
-1
).µ
R
=
ௗௗ௧
 
net specific replication rate (h
-1
). Where N is cell number concentration.Time (h)
12345
   L   o   g   c   e    l    l   n   u   m    b   e   r    /   m   L
 
GATE HELPLINEIn Balanced growth, both the net specific growth rate determined from either cell mass or cell numberwould be same. Since concentration of the substrate is large in this phase, the growth rate isindependent of nutrient concentration. The exponential growth rate is first order:
ௗ௑ௗ௧
= µ
net
X where X = at t = 0Integrating the above equationln
= µ
net
t or X = X
0
 
µ
౤౛౪
୲
where X and X
0
are cell concentration at time t and t = 0Doubling time of cell mass:τ
d
=
୪୬
 µ
೙೐೟
 Doubling time of cell number:τ'
d
=
୪୬
 µ
ೃ
 Balanced growth: τ
d
=
 
τ'
d
 3) Deceleration growth phase
 
Growth decelerates due to depletion of one or more essential nutrients or the accumulation of toxic by products of growth.
 
Unbalanced growth occurs for short duration of time due to rapid change in the environment.During that time, the cell composition and size will change and the τ
d
is not equal to τ'
d
.4) Stationary phase
 
The net growth rate is zero or the growth rate is equal to the death rate.
 
Cells are metabolically active and produce secondary metabolites.
 
Total cell mass concentration is constant, but viable cell number decrease.
 
Cryptic growth
occurs when the cells growth on the lysis products of the lysed cells.
 
Endogenous metabolism:
during the Stationary phase, the cell catabolizes cellular reserves fornew building blocks and for energy producing monomers. They expand the energy to keepthemselves alive and that energy is called
maintenance energy.
 
ௗ௑ௗ௧
= µ
net
X; where µ
net
= µ
g
- k
d
But µ
g
= 0 in stationary phase.So,
ௗ௑ௗ௧
= -k
d
X; where k
d
is first order rate constant for endogenous metabolism.Integrating the equation we getX = X
so
e
-kdt
; where X
so
is the cell mass concentration at the beginning of the stationary phase.5) Death phase
 
Cells start to die due to high concentration of toxins and depletion in nutrients.
ୢ୒ୢ୲
= -k’
d
N or N = N
s
e
-kdt
 N
s
is the concentration of cells at the end of stationary phase. K’
d
is the first order death rate constant.Yield coefficient: The ratio of cell growth in a system for a given substrate.Y
X/S
= -
୼௑୼
 

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