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Chapter 1: Training in Organizations

Chapter 1: Training in Organizations

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Blanchard, P.N., & Thacker, J. (2010). Effective Training 4th Edition. Jurong, Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
Blanchard, P.N., & Thacker, J. (2010). Effective Training 4th Edition. Jurong, Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.

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Published by: Carl Johnave Manigbas Monzon on Nov 18, 2013
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Effective Training
Blanchard & Thacker
Chapter 1
Carl Johnave M. Monzon, 4PSY3 | 1
 
Training
 
 –
 
planned effort by the company to facilitate employees’ learning of job
-related competencies
o
 
Its goal is to allow employees to master KSAO’s and apply it to day
-to-day activities
 
Everyone in an organization is affected by training; significant budget are allocated to training.
 
Subject Matter Experts
 (Managers and others) are asked to provide training.
 
Why does this corporate emphasis on training exist? Evidence continues to grow, showing that companies investing more in training produce improved financial results in terms of higher net sales, gross profits per employee, stock growth and ratio of market to book value.
o
 
However, training doesn’t always lead to an improved bo
ttom line
 –
 and thus exist effective and ineffective training.
TRAINING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES
 
Training provides employees with the knowledge and skills to perform more effectively.
o
 
Allows them to meet current job requirements, and prepares them to meet the inevitable changes that occur in their jobs.
o
 
It is used extensively to help employees understand how they can assist in meeting corporate objectives (Strategic).
o
 
It requires that effective systems are in place to address the performance issues facing the organization.
TRAINING AS AN OPEN SYSTEM
 
Open systems
 have a dynamic relationship with their environment;
closed systems
 do not.
 
General Open Systems Model
o
 
It indicates that an open system depends on the environment for input that supports the system (e.g. raw materials, capital, employees).
o
 
E
nvironmental inputs are transformed into outputs by the system’s processes (e.g. products and
services)
o
 
The system’s output flow into the environment, and might or might not influence future inputs to the
system.
 
In effective systems, the output influences the environment to supply new supportive input to the system.
 
A system must be responsive to the needs and demands of its environment because the environment provides the input needed for the system to replenish itself.
System's External Environment
Mission
Strategy
Structure
Policies
Procedures
Finances
Resources
People
Products
Technology
Input
Organizational needs
Employee Needs
Budget
Equipment
Staff 
Process
Analysis
Design
Development
Implementation
Evaluation
(A.D.D.I.E.)
Output
Knowlege
Skills
Attitudes
Motivation
Job Performance
 
Effective Training
Blanchard & Thacker
Chapter 1
Carl Johnave M. Monzon, 4PSY3 | 2
o
 
Many open systems exist as part of another system and, therefore, are called
subsystems
of that larger system.
THE TRAINING PROCESS MODEL
 
An effective training system is a set of processes designed to transform the organizational inputs into outputs that meets organizational needs
 
o
 
Viewing trainings as simply a program or a set of programs is too shortsighted; not just putting a large percentage of employees through some training.
 
o
 
It should be viewed as a
set of integrated processes
 in which organizational and employee needs are
analyzed 
 and
responded 
 to in a rational, logical and strategic manner.
 
 
The training process begins with some type of triggering event (i.e. the triggering events occurs when
a person with authority
 to take action
recognizes that the actual organizational performance [AOP] is less than the expected organizational performance [EOP] 
)
 1.
 
Analysis Phase
 
Also known as
Training Needs Analysis [TNA]
 
 
Begins with the identification of the
Organizational Performance Gap
 [AOP is less than EOP] such as profitability shortfalls, low levels of customer satisfaction, or excessive scrap.
 
There are also future-oriented performance gaps wherein the company is seen as likely to perform poorly in the future unless changes are made
 
Once a performance gap is identified, the cause is identified and evaluated if whether or not its elimination is important. Once elimination is perceived to be important, it becomes
a need of the organization
.
 
In this process,
both training and non-training
 needs are identified. i.
 
Training needs such as
inadequate KSA’s
 ii.
 
Non-training needs such as motivation issues, and faulty equipment.
2.
 
Design Phase
 
Training needs identified in the analysis phase, in addition to areas of constraint and support, are the inputs to the design phase.
 
INPUT
Organizational Analysis
Objectives
Resources
Environment
Operational Analysis
EOP
 job position (skills)
Person Analysis
AOP
PROCESS
Identify Performance Discrepancy
OUTPUT
Training Needs
Nontraining Needs
 
Effective Training
Blanchard & Thacker
Chapter 1
Carl Johnave M. Monzon, 4PSY3 | 3
 
Important process
 –
 creation of TRAINING OBJECTIVES (which provides specific direction for what will be trained and how, as well as specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved as a result of training and become inputs to the remaining phases of the model.)
 
Another part is identifying the factors needed in the training program to facilitate learning and its transfer back to the job, alternative methods of instruction, amount of practice required, the organization of the training content, and much more.
3.
 
Development Phase
 
Development
is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives as well as obtaining or creating all the things that are needed to implement the training program.
 
The
instructional strategy
 consists of the order, timing, and combination of methods and elements used in the training program.
 
Inputs into this phase are provided by the design phase, and include the alternative instructional methods and the information relating to learning facilitation and transfer. i.
 
Even though training objectives are not direct inputs to this phase, they influence the program development through their influence on the direct inputs ii.
 
Outputs are all of the things needed to implement the training program (include the specific content of the training, instructional methods used to deliver the content, materials to be used, equipment and media, manuals and so forth.)
 
These are integrated into a coherent, well-organized training plan focused on achieving the training objectives
INPUT
Learning Theory
Training Needs
Organizational
Constraints
PROCESS
Develop Training Objectives
OUTPUT
Determine the factors that facilitate learn and transfer
Identify alternative
method of intruction
Evaluation Objectives
INPUT
Determine factors that facilitate
Alternative method of instruction
PROCESS
Instructional Strategy
OUTPUT
Instructional Manual
Instructional Equipment
Trainee and Trainer Manual
Facilitates

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