2A primary physical principle of resonant absorption explains why external and internalsignals that share the same part of the spectrum, resonantly exchange energy at levels wellbelow the thermal threshold. This is also true for radio and TV receivers. It involves tunedcircuits and resonant absorption.Laboratory experiments provide evidence of effects. Replicated and/or extended studiesprovided confirmation and establish an effect. Multiple studies confirm and strengthen thecause and effect relationship.In assessing genotoxicity, any evidence of genetic damage, cell death or neoplastictransformation is evidence of genotoxicity. The genetic material is fundamentally the doublehelix of the DNA molecule. During the cell cycle the helix unwinds and clones itself. Theythen fold themselves into the set of chromosomes that are so large that they can be seen inpowerful microscopes. In the second half of the cell cycle the chromosomes clonethemselves so that at mitosis, cell division, each cell has a full set of chromosomes. Theythen unfold themselves to form the DNA strands.Any substance that damages DNA or chromosomes, or changes genetic activity, isgenotoxic because it is acting on the same material, i.e. the DNA molecule. A genotoxicsubstance is mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic.Strength of evidence for public health has a classical hierarchy that has dose-responserelationship at the top and biological mechanism at the bottom, Hill (1965). This is seen byconsidering Sir Austin Bradford Hill's descriptions of his 'view points' from which thequestion of cause and effect is being considered. Of dose-response he says:
"The simple dose-response curve admits of a simple explanation and obviously putsthe case in a clearer light", i.e. cause and effect.
Sir Austin considers many other forms of evidence from which cause and effect can bedecided in the absence of a dose-response. These include strength of association andconsistency, although he points out that the lack of strength and apparent inconsistency, isnot necessarily arguments against cause and effect. Of biological mechanism, or plausibility, he states:
"It will be helpful if the causation we suspect is biologically plausible. But this is afeature I am convinced we cannot demand. What is biologically plausible dependsupon the biological knowledge of the day."
Thus biological plausibility has a low status and dose-response has a very high status.When epidemiological evidence is available it should be used to set public health standards,where possible, using the dose-response relationships. In the absence of these, the level of lowest observed effect, with a safety margin to allow for uncertainly, the vulnerable, the sizeof the population at risk, are appropriate.