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Published by neeraj kumar singh

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Published by: neeraj kumar singh on Sep 20, 2009
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Transmission UnitsLine CharacteristicsDistortion, Cross Talk, Impedance Matching in TelecomNetwork PCM Principles
The study of transmission units has a unique importance for communicationengineer who has to maintain and install telecommunication equipments achievingthe standards set up by international consultation committees.In order to control the quality of wanted signal in the presence of many undesiredsignals, we should be able to specify the amount of wanted and unwanted signals ata point in the telecommunications network.The components used in the telecommunication circuit either give loss or gain to thesignals they handle. There are certain specific operating conditions to be satisfied for various components without which the optimum performance cannot be obtainedfrom these components. For this, it is essential to define conditions that control thoseoperating conditions. This can be done only if the conditions are specified in terms of certain units of the quantity the components are to handle.
Transmission Impairments
With analog transmission systems using copper cable there are three major categories of impairments. They are attenuation, noise, and distortion.1.
There are two commonly used processes to compensate(overcome) for attenuation or loss:(a) Repeaters are the most commonly used devices to compensate for "Loss." However, repeaters amplify the noise along with the signal resulting ina poor signal to noise ratio.(b) Signal to Noise Ratio: The ratio of the average signal power (strength) tothe average noise power (strength) at any point in a transmission path.2.
Any random disturbance or unwanted signal on a transmission facilitythat obscures the original signal. Noise is generally caused by theenvironment in which the system is operating.3.
Inaccurate reproduction of a signal caused by changes in thesignal's waveform, either amplitude or frequency, to compensate for distortionequalizers may be used. One type of equalizer used in the analogenvironment is the load coil. Load coils are used to flatten the frequencyresponse.
Generally the higher the frequency the greater the distortion. That is, thehigher voice frequencies attenuate at a higher rate than the lower voice frequencies.Noise and distortion on a carrier facility can be separated into two types:
(a) Predictable impairments that are almost always present on our facilities.(b) Unpredictable impairments those are transient in nature and difficult toovercome.
The Decibel And Neper 
Historically speaking ‘attenuation’ was first of all defined in terms of the attenuationproduced by a standard reference cable known as “mile of standard cable”. Itconsists of 88 ohms series impedance and 0.54
F as shunt impedance.The fundamental objection to this unit was the fact that the attenuation of thestandard cable varied with frequency. With the introduction of systems operatingover different frequency ranges, it became necessary to define a unit which wasindependent of frequency .The unit which represents the useful and convenientconcepts in connection with the transmission of signals over telephone lines hasbeen named and defined as “Bel”(which comes from the name Alexander GrahamBell -the inventor of Telephone). In practice ,however , a smaller and moreconvenient unit called decibel (abbreviated as dB) is used.
Decibel (dB)
One tenth of the common logarithm of the ratio of relative powers, equal to 0.1 B(bel). The decibel is the conventional relative power ratio, rather than the bel, for expressing relative powers because the decibel is smaller and therefore moreconvenient than the bel. The ratio in dB is given byX = log P
B i.e. = 10 log P
dBwhere P
are the actual powers. Power ratios may be expressed in terms of voltage and impedance,
, or current and impedance,
. Thus dB is alsogiven by;X = 20 log V
/ V
dB. (when Z
)Note: The dB is used rather than arithmetic ratios or percentages because whencircuits are connected in tandem, expressions of power level, in dB, may bearithmetically added and subtracted. For example, in an optical link if a knownamount of optical power, in dBm, is launched into a fiber, and the losses, in dB, of each component (e.g., connectors, splices, and lengths of fiber) are known, theoverall link loss may be quickly calculated with simple addition and subtraction.
Example 1
Let us look at the following network:The input is 1W and its output 2W, therefore,Gain = 10 log (output)/(input) dB.= 10 log 2/1 dB= 10 (0.3010) dB=3.101 dB= 3dB approximately
Example 2
Let us look at another network:
 Net Work 1 W 2 W

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