III Mix Design of Concrete and Property of Green Concrete
3.1 Workability and its test
The strict definition of workability is the amount of useful internal work necessary to produce full compaction. The useful internal work is a physical property of concrete alone and is the work or energy required to overcome the internal friction between the individual particles in the concrete. In practice, however, additional energy is applied to overcome the surface friction between concrete and the formwork or the reinforcement. Also, wasted energy is consumed by vibrating the form and in vibrating the concrete which has already been compacted. Thus, in practice, it is difficult to measure the workability as define, and what we measure is workability which is applicable to the particular method adopted. Workability is often referred to as the ease with which a concrete can be transported, placed and consolidated, without excessive bleeding or segregation. Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labour and appearance of the finished product.
Factors affecting Concrete Workability
Water Cement Ratio
The main factor affecting the workability of concrete is the water content of the mix since by simply adding water, the interparticle lubrication is increased resulting in higher fluidity and hence higher workability. However, to achieve optimum conditions for minimum voids or for maximum density with no segregation, the influence of the aggregate type and grading has to be considered.
Amount and Type of Aggregates
For a constant w/c ratio, the workability increases as the aggregate/cement ratio is reduced because the amount of water relative to the total surface area of solids is increased.