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Mix Design of Concrete and Properties of Green Concrete

Mix Design of Concrete and Properties of Green Concrete

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal
Mix Design of Concrete and Properties of Green Concrete
Level: B.E.
Concrete Technology
Mix Design of Concrete and Properties of Green Concrete
Level: B.E.
Concrete Technology

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Feb 07, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 III  Mix Design of Concrete and Property of Green Concrete
3.1 Workability and its test 
The strict definition of workability is the amount of useful internal work necessary to produce full compaction. The useful internal work is a physical property of concrete alone and is the  work or energy required to overcome the internal friction between the individual particles in the concrete. In practice, however, additional energy is applied to overcome the surface friction between concrete and the formwork or the reinforcement. Also, wasted energy is consumed by vibrating the form and in vibrating the concrete which has already been compacted. Thus, in practice, it is difficult to measure the workability as define, and what we measure is workability which is applicable to the particular method adopted.  Workability is often referred to as the ease with which a concrete can be transported, placed and consolidated, without excessive bleeding or segregation. Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labour and appearance of the finished product.
Factors affecting Concrete Workability 
Water Cement Ratio
The main factor affecting the workability of concrete is the water content of the mix since by simply adding water, the interparticle lubrication is increased resulting in higher fluidity and hence higher workability. However, to achieve optimum conditions for minimum voids or for maximum density with no segregation, the influence of the aggregate type and grading has to be considered.
 Amount and Type of Aggregates
For a constant w/c ratio, the workability increases as the aggregate/cement ratio is reduced because the amount of water relative to the total surface area of solids is increased.
 A rather high ratio of volumes of coarse to fine aggregates can result in segregation and a lower workability, so that the mix is harsh and not easily finished.
Too many fines lead to a higher workability, but such an oversanded mix makes less durable concrete.
 Amount and Type of Cement
Fineness of cement is of minor influence on workability but the finer the cement, the greater the water demand.
Weather Conditions (Temperature, Wind)
 A higher temperature reduces the workability (due to evaporation of water) and increases the slump loss.
If the concrete is exposed to the sun or wind, some of the water is lost by evaporation thus causing the stiffening of concrete and a loss of workability with time.
Chemical Admixtures
Chemical admixtures can be used to increase workability. Use of air entraining agent produces air bubbles which act as a sort of ball bearing between particles and increases mobility,  workability and decreases bleeding, segregation. The use of fine pozzolanic materials also has better lubricating effect and more workability.
Workability Tests
Slump Test
Tools and Apparatus used for Slump Test
: 1.
Standard Slump Cone (100 mm top diameter x 200 mm bottom diameter x 300 mm height) 2.
Bullet-nosed road (600 mm long x 16 mm diameter) 3.
Slump Plate (500 mm x 500 mm)
: i.
The mould in the form of a frustum of a cone is placed on a smooth surface with the smaller opening at the top and filled with concrete in three layers. ii.
Each layer is tamped 25 times with a standard 16 mm φ steel rod.

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