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INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY: Definition: In Communications and Electronic Engineering, An Intermediate

INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY: Definition: In Communications and Electronic Engineering, An Intermediate

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05/15/2013

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INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY:
Definition:
In communications and
, an
intermediate frequency
(
IF
) is a
to which a
is shifted as an intermediate step in
or reception. The intermediate frequency is created by mixing the carrier signal witha
signal in a process called
, resulting in a signal at thedifference or
. Intermediate frequencies are used in
 
, in which an incoming signal is shifted to an IF for
before final
is done. There may be several such stages of intermediate frequency in asuperheterodyne, which is called
double
(or
triple
)
conversion
.
Uses and Functions:
Intermediate frequencies are used for three general reasons. At very high (
)frequencies, signal processing circuitry performs poorly. Active devices such as
cannot deliver much amplification (
) without becoming unstable.Ordinary circuits using
and
must be replaced with cumbersomehigh frequency techniques such as
and
. So a high frequencysignal is converted to a lower IF for processing.A second reason to use an IF, in receivers that can be tuned to different stations, isto convert the various different frequencies of the stations to a common frequencyfor processing. It is difficult to build
,
, and
that can be tunedto different frequencies, but easy to build tunable
. Superheterodynereceivers tune in different stations simply by adjusting the frequency of the localoscillator on the input stage, and all processing after that is done at the samefrequency, the IF. Without using an IF, all the complicated filters and detectors in aradio or television would have to be tuned in unison each time the station waschanged, as was necessary in the early
.But the main reason for using an intermediate frequency is to improve frequency
. In communications circuits a very common task is to separate signals orcomponents of a signal that are close together in frequency. This is called
.Some examples are, picking up a radio station among several that are close infrequency, or extracting the
subcarrier from a TV signal. With all knownfiltering techniques the filter's
increases proportionately with thefrequency. So a narrower bandwidth and more selectivity can be achieved byconverting the signal to a lower IF and performing the filtering at that frequency. The most commonly used intermediate frequencies are 10–70 MHz in the satelliteand radar world. However, the intermediate frequency can range from 10–100 MHz.Intermediate frequency (IF) are generated by mixing the RF and LO frequency
 
together to create a lower frequency called IF. Most of the ADC/DAC operates in lowsampling rates, so input RF must be mixed down to IF to be processed. Intermediatefrequency tends to be lower frequency range compared to the transmitted RFfrequency. However, the choices for the IF are most depending on the availablecomponents such as mixer, filters, amplifiers and others that can operate at lowerfrequency. There are other factors involved in deciding the IF frequency, becauselower IF is susceptible to noise and higher IF can cause clock jitters.
Commonly used intermediate frequencies
 Televisionreceivers: 30 MHz to 900 MHzAnaloguetelevision receivers using system M: 41.25 MHz (audio) and 45.75 MHz(video). Note, the channel is flipped over in the conversion process in anintercarrier system, so the audio IF frequency is lower than the video IF frequency. Also, there isno audio local oscillator, the injected video carrier serves that purpose.FM radioreceivers: 5.5 MHz, 10.7 MHz, 98 MHz. In double-conversionsuperheterodyne receivers, often a first intermediate frequency of 1.6 MHz is used,followed by a second intermediate frequency of 470 kHz.AM radioreceivers: 450 kHz, 455 kHz, 460 kHz, 465 kHz, 470 kHz, 475 kHz, 480 kHzSatelliteuplink-downlinkequipment: 70 MHz, 950-1450 Downlink first IF  Terrestrialmicrowaveequipment: 250 MHz, 70 MHzRadar: 30 MHzRFTest Equipment: 310.7 MHz, 160 MHz, 21.4 MHz
RADIO FREQUENCY 
Definition:
Radio frequency (RF) is a
, or rate of 
, of 
within the range of about 3
to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to the frequencyof 
 
used to produce and detect
. Sincemost of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems canrespond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in
.
Special properties of RF electrical signals
Electrical currents that oscillate at RF have special properties not shared bydirect currentsignals. One such property is the ease with which they can ionize air tocreate a conductive path through air. This property is exploited by 'high frequency'
 
units used in electricarc welding, although strictly speaking these machines do nottypically employ frequencies within the HF band. Another special property is anelectromagnetic force that drives the RF current to the surface of conductors,known as theskin effect. Another property is the ability to appear to flow throughpaths that contain insulating material, like thedielectricinsulator of a capacitor. Thedegree of effect of these properties depends on the frequency of the signals.
Frequencies
Name Symbol Frequency Wavelength Applications
ExtremelylowfrequencyELFa 330 Hzk 10010 MmDirectly audible when converted tosound(above ~20 Hz),communicationwith submarinesSuper lowfrequencySLFb 30300 Hzj 101 MmDirectly audible when converted tosound,AC power grids(50–60 Hz)Ultra lowfrequencyULFc 300– 3000 Hzi 1000–100 kmDirectly audible when converted tosound, communication within minesVery lowfrequencyVLFd 330 kHzh 10010 kmDirectly audible when converted tosound (below ~20 kHz; or 
otherwise)LowfrequencyLFe 30300 kHzg 101 kmAM broadcasting,navigational beacons, lowFER , amateur radio MediumfrequencyMFf 300– 3000 kHzf 1000–100 m Navigational beacons,AM broadcasting,amateur radio, maritime and aviation communicationHighfrequencyHFg 330 MHze 10010 mShortwave,amateur radio,citizens'  band radio, skywave propagation Very highfrequencyVHFh 30– 300 MHzd 10–1 mFM broadcasting,amateur radio,  broadcast television,aviation,GPR ,

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