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Literary Comprehensive

Literary Comprehensive

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Published by Alviano Prastio

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Published by: Alviano Prastio on Oct 15, 2009
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LITERATURE
Literature
is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced, what they have thought andfelt about these aspects. In other words, literature deals with life which does not only represent the natural world andindividual subjective, world but also reflects society.
Literature
KINDS OF LITERATURE
Poetry/ Poem
is acompositionwritten inverse(although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems rely heavily onimagery,precise word choice, and metaphor ;they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet
 
) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody
 
);and they may or may not utilize rhyme. One cannot readily characterize poetry  precisely. Typically though, poetry as a form of literature makes some significant use of the
 formal 
properties of the words it uses – the properties of the writtenor  spokenform of the words, independent of their meaning. Metre depends onsyllables and on rhythms  of speech; rhyme andalliteration depend on the sounds of words.
Poetry
can be defined as ‘literature in a metrical form’ or ‘a composition forming rhythmic lines’. Inshort, a poem is something that follows a particular flow of rhythm and meter. Compared to prose, where there isno such restriction, and the content of the piece flows according to story, a poem may or may not have a story, butdefinitely has a structured method of writing.Poetry perhaps pre-dates other forms of literature: early known examples include theSumerian 
(dated from around2700 B.C.
 
), parts of theBible,the surviving works of  Homer  (the 
 and the
), and the Indian epics 
 and
. In cultures based primarily on oral traditions theformal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonicfunction, and important texts: legal,genealogicalor moral, for example, may appear first in verse form.Some
poetry uses specific forms
: thehaiku,the limerick , or the sonnet, for example. A traditional haiku written in Japanese must have something to do withnature,contain seventeen onji (syllables), distributed over  three lines in groups of five, seven, and five, and should also have a kigo, a specific word indicating a season. Alimerick has five lines, with arhyme scheme of AABBA, and line lengths of 3,3,2,2,3 stressed syllables. It traditionally has a less reverent attitude towards nature. Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called"free verse"Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarelyrhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way. Perhaps the most paradigmaticstyle of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works byShakespeare andMilton, consists of  unrhymediambic pentameters.Some languages prefer longer lines; some shorter ones. Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than intoothers; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words.Other structural conventions come about as the result of historical accidents, where many speakers of a languageassociate good poetry with a verse form preferred by a particular skilled or popular poet.Works for theatre (see below) traditionally took verse form. This has now become rare outsideoperaandmusicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic.
consists of writing that does not adhere to any particular formal structures (other than simplegrammar ); "non-poetic" writing, perhaps. The term sometimes appears pejoratively, but prosaic writing simply says somethingwithout necessarily trying to say it in a beautifulway, or using beautiful words. Prose writing can of course take beautiful form; but less by virtue of the formal features of words (rhymes, alliteration, metre) but rather by style, placement, or inclusion of graphics. But one need not mark the distinction precisely, and perhaps cannot do so.One area of overlap is " prose poetry", which attempts to convey using only prose, the aesthetic richness typical of  poetry.
Fiction
 
) generally favours prose for the writing of novels,short stories, graphic novels, and the like. Singular examples of these exist throughout history, but they did not develop into systematicand discrete literary forms until relatively recent centuries. Length often serves to categorize works of prosefiction. Although limits remain somewhat arbitrary, modern  publishing conventions dictate the following:
A Mini Sagais a short story of 
exactly
50 words
A Flash fictionis generally defined as a piece of prose under a thousand words.
A short story comprises prose writing of between 1000 and 20,000 words (but typically more than 5000 words), which may or may not have a narrative arc.
A story containing between 20,000 and 50,000 words falls into thenovella category.
A work of fiction containing more than 50,000 words falls squarely into the realm of thenovel.
consists simply of a long story written in prose, yet the form developed comparatively recently.Icelandic  prosesagas dating from about the 11th century bridge the gap between traditional nationalverse epics  and the modern psychological novel. In mainland Europe, the Spaniard Cervanteswrote perhaps the first influential novel:
, the first part of which was published in 1605 and the second in 1615. Earlier 
 
collections of  tales, such as the
, have comparable forms and would classify as novels if written today. Other works written inclassicalAsianandArabic literature resemble even more strongly the novel as we now think of it – for example, works such as the Japanese
  by Lady Murasaki,the Arabic
  byIbn Tufail,the Arabic
  byIbn al-Nafis,and the Chinese 
byLuoGuanzhong.Early novels in Europe did not, at the time, count as significant literature, perhaps because "mere" prosewriting seemed easy and unimportant. It has become clear, however, that prose writing can provide aesthetic pleasure without adhering to poetic forms. Additionally, the freedom authors gain in not having to concernthemselves with verse structure translates often into a more complex plot or into one richer in precise detail than one typically finds even in narrative poetry. This freedom also allows an author to experiment with many differentliterary and presentation styles – including poetry – in the scope of a single novel.
Drama
A  play or dramaoffers another classical literary form that has continued to evolve over the years. It generally comprises chieflydialogue  between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance(see theatre) rather than at reading. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,opera developed as a combination of   poetry, drama, and music.Nearly all drama took verse form until comparatively recently. Shakespeare could be considered drama. Romeo and Juliet,for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature. Greek dramaexemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have substantial knowledge. Tragedy, as a dramatic genre,developed as a performance associated withreligiousand civicfestivals, typically enacting or  developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of newer technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form.War of the Worlds (radio)in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have beenadapted to printed or electronic media.
LITERATURE GENRES
Epic
Lyric
Drama
Romance
Satire
Tragedy
Comedy
TragicomedyA literary genre refers to the traditional divisions of literature of various kinds according to a particular criterionof writing. Seethe list of literary genres.List of literary genres:
Autobiography, Memoir, Spiritual autobiography
Biography
Diaries and Journals
Electronic literature
Erotic literature
Slave narrative
Fiction
o
Adventure novel
o
Children's literature
o
Comic novel
o
Crime fiction
Detective fiction
o
Fable, Fairy tale, Folklore
o
Fantasy (for more details see Fantasy subgenres; fantasy literature)
o
Gothic fiction (initially synonymous with horror)
o
Historical fiction
o
Horror 
o
Medical novel
o
Mystery fiction
o
Philosophical novel
o
Political fiction
o
Romance novel
Historical romance
 
o
Saga, Family Saga
o
Satire
o
Science fiction (for more details see Science fictiongenre)
o
Thriller 
Conspiracy fiction
Legal thriller 
Psychological thriller 
Spy fiction/Political thriller 
o
Tragedy
THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION, POETRY AND DRAMA
Elements of Fiction
Plot, Setting, Character, Conflict, Symbol,
and
Point of View 
are the main elements which fiction writers use todevelop a story and its
Theme.
Because literature is an art and not a science, it is impossible to specifically quantify any of these elements withinany story or to guarantee that each will be present in any given story.
Setting
might be the most important element in one and almost nonexistent in another.Just as a Crime Scene Investigator cannot approach a crime scene looking for a specific clue (e. g., shell casings),you as a reader cannot approach a story deciding to look for a specific element, such as
Symbol
. To assume could blind you to important elements. Both the CSI team and you must examine the entire “area” carefully to determinewhat is present and how it is important.With that understanding, let’s examine the elements.
Plot
Literature teachers sometimes give the impression that plot is not important, that anyone interested in plot is animmature reader.Of course plot is important. It was what got us interested in reading in the first place. It was the carrot on thestring that pulled us through a story as we wanted to see what would happen next.That said, let me emphasize that plot is rarely the most important element of a good story. As much as I’ve alwaysloved surprise endings, if the only thing a film or a story has is a great twist ending, it doesn’t have anything on asecond look.And it’s worth noting that recent fiction and film have deemphasized plot, frequently stressing character or conflictfor example. In film, for example, think David Lynch or 
 Pulp Fiction
.
Setting
Stories actually have two types of setting:
Physical
and
Chronological.
The
physical setting
 
is of course where the story takes place. The “where” can be very general—a small farmingcommunity, for example—or very specific—a two story white frame house at 739 Hill Street in Scott City,Missouri.Likewise, the
chronological setting
, the “when,” can be equally general or specific.The author’s choices are important. Shirley Jackson gives virtually no clues as to where or when her story “TheLottery” is set. Examination suggests that she wants the story to be universal, not limited by time or place. Thefirst two stories you will read each establish a fairly specific physical setting; consider what each setting brings toeach story.
Character
What type of individuals are the main characters? Brave, cowardly, bored, obnoxious? If you tell me that the protagonist (main character) is brave, you should be able to tell where in the story you got that perception.In literature, as in real life, we can evaluate character three ways: what the individual says, what the individualdoes, and what others say about him or her.
Conflict
Two types of conflict are possible:
External
and
Internal.External conflict
could be man against nature (people in a small lifeboat on a rough ocean) or man against man.While
internal conflict
might not seem as exciting as external, remember that real life has far more internal thanexternal conflict.Film and fiction emphasize external conflict not simply because “it’s more interesting” but also because it’s easier to write. In a film script, you merely have to write “A five minute car chase follows” and you’ve filled fiveminutes.
Symbol
Don’t get bent out of shape about symbols. Simply put, a symbol is something which means something else.Frequently it’s a tangible physical thing which symbolizes something intangible. The Seven/Eleven storesunderstood that a few years ago when they were selling roses with a sign saying, “A Rose Means ‘I Love You.’”The basic point of a story or a poem rarely depends solely on understanding a symbol. However important or interesting they might be, symbols are usually “frosting,” things which add interest or depth.It’s normal for you to be skeptical about symbols. If I tell you that the tree in a certain story symbolizes theGarden of Eden, you may ask “Is that really there or did you make it up?” or “How do you know what the author meant?”Literature teachers may indeed “over-interpret” at times, find symbols that really aren’t there. But if you don’toccasionally chase white rabbits that aren’t there, you’ll rarely find the ones that are there.

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