:Anon diocesan territorywhose people are under the pastoral care of an abbot acting in general in the mannerof a bishop.
:The female superior of a monasticcommunity of nuns; e.g., Benedictines,Poor Clares, some others. Elected bymembers of the community, an abbess hasgeneral authority over her community butno sacramental jurisdiction.
:The male superior of a monasticcommunity of men religious; e.g.,Benedictines, Cistercians, some others.Elected by members of the community, anabbot has ordinary jurisdiction and generalauthority over his community.EasternRite equivalents of an abbot are ahegumen and an archimandrite. A regularabbot is the head of an abbey or monastery.An abbot general or archabbot is the headof a congregation consisting of severalmonasteries. An abbot primate is the headof the modern Benedictine Confederation.
:The term used to describe thespontaneous generation of living matterfrom non-living matter.
:Aterm derived from Latin,meaning washing or cleansing, andreferring to the cleansing of the hands of apriest celebrating Mass, after the offeringof gifts; and to the cleansing of the chalicewith water and wine after Communion.
:The spiritual practice of self-denial (or mortification), in order to atonefor past sins or in order to join oneself tothe passion of Christ. Mortification can beundertaken through fasting, abstinence, orrefraining from legitimate pleasure.
:Abortion is not only “theejection of an immature fetus” from thewomb, but is “also the killing of the samefetus in whatever way at whatever timefrom the moment of conception it may beprocured.” (This clarification of Canon1398, reported in the Dec. 5, 1988,edition of
,was issuedby the Pontifical Council for theInterpretation of Legislative Texts — inview of scientific developments regardingways and means of procuring abortion.)Accidental expulsion, as in cases of miscarriage, is without moral fault. Directabortion, in which a fetus is intentionallyremoved from the womb, constitutes adirect attack on an innocent human being,aviolation of the Fifth Commandment. Aperson who procures a completed abortionis automatically excommunicated (Canon1398 of the
Code of Canon Law
);alsoexcommunicated are all persons involvedin a deliberate and successful effort tobring about an abortion. Direct abortion isnot justifiable for any reason, e.g.,therapeutic, for the physical and/orpsychological welfare of the mother;preventive, to avoid the birth of a defectiveor unwanted child; social, in the interestsof family and/or community.Indirectabortion, which occurs when a fetus isexpelled during medical or othertreatment of the mother for a reason otherthan procuring expulsion, is permissibleunder the principle of double effect for aproportionately serious reason; e.g., whenamedical or surgical procedure is necessaryto save the life of the mother. Such a