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Outline of Poe's Philosophy of Composition

Outline of Poe's Philosophy of Composition

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Published by Nick Senger
This is a rough outline of an essay called "Philosophy of Composition" by Edgar Allen Poe. I use it when teaching "The Raven."
This is a rough outline of an essay called "Philosophy of Composition" by Edgar Allen Poe. I use it when teaching "The Raven."

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Published by: Nick Senger on Aug 03, 2007
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05/08/2014

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Page 1 Notes from “Poe's Philosophy of Composition”"There is a radical error, I think in the usual mode of constructing a story":
"Either history affords a thesis--or one is suggested by an incident of the day,"
"Or…the author sets himself to work in the combination of striking events to formmerely the basis of his narrative.""I prefer commencing with the consideration of an
effect 
":
"I say to myself, 'Of the innumerable effects, or impressions, of which…the soul issusceptible, what one shall I, on the present occasion, select?'"
"Having chosen a novel…and…vivid effect, I consider whether it can best be wrought byincident or tone."Poe commences with "…the intention of composing a poem that should suit at once the popular and the critical taste."
Length:
o
"If any literary work is too long to be read at one sitting, we must be content todispense with the immensely important effect derivable from unity of impression--for, if two sittings be required, the affairs of the world interfere, andeverything like totality is at once destroyed."
o
He settles on a length of one hundred and eight lines ("the brevity must be indirect ratio of the intensity of the intended effect")
"The choice of an impression"
o
It must be "
universally
appreciable": Beauty
o
Real beauty: "That pleasure which is at once the most intense, the most elevating,and the most pure, is, I believe, found in the contemplation of the beautiful.When, indeed, men speak of Beauty, they mean, precisely, not a quality, as issupposed, but an effect--they refer, in short, just to that intense and pure elevationof 
 soul 
--
not 
of intellect, or of heart…and which is experienced in consequence of contemplating "the beautiful."
Tone:
o
With Beauty as is his impression, Poe's next task was to find "the
tone
of itshighest manifestation--and all experience has shown that this tone is one of 
 sadness
. Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excitesthe sensitive soul to tears. Melancholy is thus the most legitimate of all the poetical tones."
He began to look for some "key-note in the construction of the poem--some pivot uponwhich the whole structure might turn."
o
As he began looking at "all the usual artistic effects," he perceived
refrain
as being the most universal.
o
Since refrain depends on "the force of monotone" in sound and thought repeated,he "determined to produce continuously novel effects, by the variation
of theapplication
of the
refrain
--the
refrain
itself remaining, for the most part, unvaried.
The nature of the refrain:
 
Page 2
o
"Since its application was to be repeatedly varied, it was clear that the
refrain
itself must be brief…This led me at once to a single word as the best
refrain
.
The sound of the word:
o
A refrain implies stanzas, and the refrain closes each stanza.
o
To close the stanza with force, the sound "must be sonorous and susceptible of  protracted emphasis”
o
Conclusion: long o as the most sonorous vowel in connection with r as the most producible consonant
The choice of the word
o
Must be in keeping with the melancholy tone of the poem
o
“Nevermore” was the very first word which presented itself 
A plausible reason for repeating the word so often
o
It would seem odd to have a person say a word so often
o
“Here, then, immediately arose the idea of a non-reasoning creature capable of speech, and very naturally, a parrot, in the first instance, suggested itself, but wassuperseded forthwith by a Raven as equally capable of speech, and infinitely morein keeping with the intended tone.”
So far:
o
“A raven, the bird of ill-omen, monotonously repeating the one word ‘Nevermore’at the conclusion of each stanza in a poem of melancholy tone, and in lengthabout one hundred lines.”
o
What next?
The topic of the poem:
o
"Of all melancholy topics what, according to the universal understanding of mankind, is the most melancholy?"
o
Death
o
"And when," I said, "is this most melancholy of topics most poetical?"
"When it most closely allies itself to Beauty:
the death then of a beautiful woman is unquestionably the most poeticaltopic in the world;
and equally is it beyond doubt that the lips best suited for such topic arethose of a bereaved lover."
How to combine a raven repeating “Nevermore” with a lover lamenting his deadmistress:
o
“the only intelligible mode of such combination is that of imagining the Ravenemploying the word in answer to the queries of the lover”
o
To make the repetition more varied, “I saw that I could make the first query propounded by the lover…a commonplace one, the second less so, the third stillless, and so on,
o
until at length the lover…by a consideration of the ominous reputation of the fowlthat uttered it, is at length excited to superstition
o
and so the lover keeps asking the bird questions, “not altogether because he believes in the prophetic or demoniac character of the bird…but because heexperiences a frenzied pleasure in so modelling his questions as to receive from
 
Page 3the expected ‘Nevermore’ the most delicious because the most intolerable of sorrows.
The true beginning of the poem:
o
“at the end where all works of art should begin”
o
He writes the stanza with “within a distant Aidenn”
Why begin here?
o
So that “by establishing the climax, I might the better vary and graduate, asregards seriousness and importance, the preceding queries of the lover”
o
“and secondly, that I might definitely settle the rhythm, the metre, and the lengthand general arrangement of the stanza”
o
He chose this pattern of repetition for its originality:
“each of these lines taken individually has been employed before, andwhat originality the "Raven" has, is in their combination into stanza;
“nothing even remotely approaching this has ever been attempted.”
The effect of this originality of combination is aided by other unusual andsome altogether novel effects, arising from an extension of the applicationof the principles of rhyme and alliteration.
 Next, how to bring the lover and the bird together?
o
Locale:
He decided on the lover’s chamber because “a close circumscription of space…has the force of a frame to a picture”
“a chamber rendered sacred to him by memories of her who hadfrequented it. The room is represented as richly furnished” out of achieving the effect of “Beauty, as the sole true poetical thesis.”
o
Method of entry:
The window, obviously
He delays this to increase the readers curiosity, and to make the lover half-imagine “that it was the spirit of his mistress that knocked.”
o
The tempestuous night
To explain why the raven would seek admission
To “contrast with the (physical) serenity within the chamber.”
o
The bust of Pallas
“for the effect of contrast between the marble and the plumage”
“in keeping with the scholarship of the lover”
“and…for the sonorousness of the word, Pallas, itself.”
The approaching denouement:
o
“with the Raven's reply, "Nevermore," to the lover's final demand if he shall meethis mistress in another world- the poem, in its obvious phase, that of a simplenarrative, may be said to have its completion”
o
So far, everything is within the limits of the accountable- of the real.
A raven, having learned by rote the single word "Nevermore," and havingescaped from the custody of its owner, is driven at midnight, through theviolence of a storm, to seek admission at a window from which a light still

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