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Dbms Notes

Dbms Notes

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Published by: debpanchami on Nov 09, 2009
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Subject: Database Management System Year/Sem : II / IV
Define Entity and entity sets.
is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. For instance, JohnHarris with S.I.N. 890-12-3456 is an entity, as he can be uniquely identified as one particular  person in the universe.
An entity may be
(a person or a book, for example) or 
(like a holiday or aconcept).
entity set
is a set of entities of the same type (e.g., all persons having an account at a bank).
Entity sets
need not be disjoint
. For example, the entity set
(all employees of a bank)and the entity set
(all customers of the bank) may have members in common.
An entity is represented by a set of 
E.g. name, S.I.N., street, city for ``customer'' entity.
of the attribute is the set of permitted values (e.g. the telephone number must be seven positive integers).
Formally, an attribute is a
which maps an entity set into a domain.
Every entity is described by a set of (attribute, data value) pairs.
There is one pair for each attribute of the entity set.
E.g. a particular 
entity is described by the set {(name, Harris), (S.I.N., 890-123-456), (street, North), (city, Georgetown)}.An analogy can be made with the programming language notion of type definition.
The concept of an
entity set
corresponds to the programming language
type definition
A variable of a given type has a particular value at a point in time.
Thus, a programming language variable corresponds to an
in the E-R model.Figure 2-1 shows two entity sets.We will be dealing with five entity sets in this section:
, the set of all branches of a particular bank. Each branch is described by theattributes
, the set of all people having an account at the bank. Attributes are
, with attributes
, the set of all accounts created and maintained in the bank. Attributes are
, the set of all account transactions executed in the bank. Attributes are
2. Define role in Database Administrator. 
A Database Adminstrator, Database Analyst or Database Developer is the person responsible for managing theinformation within an organization. As most companies continue to experience inevitable growth of their databases,these positions are probably the most solid within the IT industry. In most cases, it is not an area that is targeted for layoffs or downsizing. On the downside, however, most database departments are often understaffed, requiringadminstrators to perform a multitude of tasks.Depending on the company and the department, this role can either be highly specialized or incredibly diverse. The primary role of the Database Administrator is to adminster, develop, maintain and implement the policies and procedures necessary to ensure the security and integrity of the corporate database. Sub roles within the DatabaseAdministrator classification may include security, architecture, warehousing and/or business analysis. Other primaryroles will include:
Implementation of data models
Database design
Database accessibility
Performance issues
Capacity issues
Data replication
Table MaintainenceDatabase Administrators are often on-call and required to work as needed. This position carries an enormous amountof responsibility.
3. Define DBMS.what are the advantages of DBMS? 
Database Management System
) is a set of computer programsthat controls the creation, maintenance,and the use of thedatabasein a computer platform or of an organization and itsend users.It allows organizations to  place control of organization-wide database development in the hands of database administrators(DBAs) and other specialists.A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records and files known asdatabases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of avariety of database models,such as thenetwork modelor relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in astructured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in aquery language. Thus, many DBMS packages provideFourth- generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logicalorganization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controllingdata access,enforcingdata integrity, managing concurrency controlled, restoring database.
Using a DBMS to manage data has many advantages:Data independence:
Application programs should be as independent as possible from details of data representationand storage. The DBMS can provide an abstract view of the data to insulate application code from such details.
Efficient data access:
A DBMS utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to store and retrieve data eficiently. Thisfeature is especially important if the data is stored on external storage devices.
Data integrity and security:
If data is always accessed through the DBMS, the DBMS can enforce integrityconstraints on the data. For example, before inserting salary information for an employee, the DBMS can check thatthe department budget is not exceeded. Also, the DBMS can enforce access controls that govern what data is visible todifferent classes of users.
Data administration:
When several users share the data, centralizing the administration of data can offer significantimprovements. Experienced professionals who understand the nature of the data being managed, and how dierent groups of users use it, can be responsible for organizing the data representation to minimize redundancy and for retuning the storage of the data to make retrieval efficient.
Concurrent access and crash recovery:
A DBMS schedules concurrent accesses to the data in such a manner thatusers can think of the data as being accessed by only one user at a time. Further, the DBMS protects users from theeffects of system failures.
Reduced application development time:
Clearly, the DBMS supports many important functions that are common tomany applications accessing data stored in the DBMS. This, in conjunction with the high-level interface to the data,facilitates quick development of applications. Such applications are also likely to be more robust than applicationsdeveloped from scratch because many important tasks are handled by the DBMS instead of being implemented by theapplication.Given all these advantages, is there ever a reason not to use a DBMS? A DBMS is a complex piece of software,optimized for certain kinds of workloads (e.g., answering complex queries or handling many concurrent requests), andits performance may not be adequate for certain specialized applications. Examples include applications with tightreal-time constraints or applications with just a few well-defined critical operations for which eficient custom codemust be written. Another reason for not using a DBMS is that an application may need to manipulate the data in waysnot supported by the query language. In such a situation, the abstract view of the data presented by the DBMS does notmatch the application’s needs, and actually gets in the way. As an example, relational databases do not support flexibleanalysis of text data (although vendors are now extending their products in this direction). If specialized performanceor data manipulation requirements are central to an application, the application may choose not to use a DBMS,especially if the added benefits’ of a DBMS (e.g., flexible querying, security, concurrent access, and crash recovery)are not required. In most situations calling for large-scale data management, however, DBMSs have become anindispensable tool.
4. What is meant by E-R model? Why? 
Entity-Relationship Model
(ERM) is an abstract and conceptual representationof data. Entity-relationship modeling is adatabase modelingmethod, used to produce a type of conceptual schemaor semantic data modelof a system, often arelational database, and its requirements in atop-downfashion. Diagrams created using this process are called
entity-relationship diagrams
, or 
 ER diagrams
for short.The definitive reference for entity relationship modelling is generally given asPeter Chen's 1976 paper 
. However,variants of the idea existed previously (see for example A.P.G. Brown
) and have been devised subsequently.The first stage of information systemdesign uses these models during therequirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of informationthat is to be stored in a database. The data modelingtechnique can be used to describe anyontology(i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for acertainarea of interest. In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, theconceptual data modelis, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to alogical data model, such as therelational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design. Note that sometimes, both of these phasesare referred to as "physical design".There are a number of conventions for entity-relationship diagrams (ERDs). The classical notation mainly relatesto conceptual modeling. There are a range of notations employed in logical and physicaldatabase design, such asIDEF1X
The building blocks: entities, relationships, and attributes
Two related entitiesAn entity with an attribute A relationship with an attribute

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