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A Revolution an Our Underslanding of Crime is Quietly Overlhrowing

A Revolution an Our Underslanding of Crime is Quietly Overlhrowing

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Published by: The JC Student on Nov 12, 2009
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01/17/2013

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,!Y$c
J5o
J
PASSACL
1
A
revolution
an
our
underslanding
of
crime
is
quietly
overlhrowingsome
eslabistleddocbif€s.
Unlil recently, criminologists
looked for the causes
of crime
almosl
entirely
in
lh€ofie{rdecs
s.ocj,air
circumstances.
There seemed
tobe
oo
shortage
ol
circumslances
10
blame: rrcAker}gd
ct!€A{ic
or
broken families.
ineffectiveschools,
anti-social
gangs,poveriy,uneanp,lofst€rlt-
T,h€
sociological theory
of
crime
had
the
unquestioned suppod
of
prorninenl
rned-ra
coff{nerifts@.i
politiciansand
most
ihoughtful
people.
?
Today
manv learned
jouhars
and
scholadyworks
draw a ditferent
picture.
qs*ar!
have'not
been aband6ned\ave
not
been
abandonedbut
it
is
b€coming
increasingly clear
thal
cdme
i5
llre
interaction
.betweensocial'rand certain
bioloqical
iactors.
The
idea
is
s$U
cq?I]
iand
certain
biological
factors.
The
idea
isstill cq(Sd$$iddl
hgit
rh:
"Are
criminals
bom or made?' lhe
answer
seeirs
lo
t#
t$O$hi.
iI0
ncreasingly.
to
the
questioh: "Arec.iminalsbom or made?' lhe
answer
seeirs
lo
t#
Statislic.:,
sirow that crime everywhere
andthroughouthistory
is
disproporlignatebra
i!}g&q
fiadS
pursuit.
Whethermen are 20
or more
timesas
likely
to
be arrested
as
vrorner\
a*
h
$lS
tSEp
n
Malawi
or
Brunei,
or
only four
to
six
times
as
likely, as
in
lhe
US.or
France,
the
qex
dtriHtsK*
ii'.|
crifi'ie statistics
is
universal.
Similarty,l8-year-olds
maysomdliryles
be
tow
lilli:stg
*atw
b
he
criminal
as
40-year-olds,while
at
other times onlytwice
as
likely
I
he
nrost compellingevidence
of
biologicalfactors
foa
criminality
comes
from
tryo
ilrrfies
-
otreof
irrinaj,
lh9
l,thea
oI
adopted
boys-
There have
L€en
about
a
dozen
studies
ol
crirninatfy
usiE
h'/i
s
The results show
that
identical
twins are
morelikely
to
have
similaa
ctimltEl
rscsds
than
frater
ai
lwins-
Essentialty,thesame resultsare found
in
studies
ol
adopled
cfi
dIen.
8gfirdf
Mednick.
a
psychologist
at
ihe Uliversity
of Southem
Cali{omra.and
hi9
Gsodales
inO'e
US
8.|d
Deriniark,
have
followed a
sample
ol
several
thousand
bo/a
adopt€d
h
De
rafi
between
tgf,
and
lrr 7.
nBys
with
criminal biolqgicalparentsand
non-cdminal.
adodirg
Fretlts
y/e,o
.tE
e
likely
td
irave
cajminalrecords
than lhose
wilh
non-cdminal
Hologtd
Wetns
snd
crirt@
adopting
parents.Thb
more
crirniEal
convictions
a
bcys
natsral
p3lenbha{.\the
greater
$to
.k*
.
of criminalit-v
for boys
beinsraised
by edopting
parentswho
had
no
racolds-
lle
olle
believes
there
are
'crime
genes"
ttut
there
are
two
major
anributes
that
h:8ve,
to
sonxdeoreei
an
inhedtable
base
and
that
appear
to
in0uen@c.iminal
behavtq"r.
fr}t3e
*g
inletlig;nce
and
temperarnent. lf
tO
and
criminalityare linked, what may
oqfah
lhe
t{efiEt
are several
possibilities.
One
is
that lolv
lQ
scoressignify
greaterdifiiqrlty
ingaasplng
[s
*fry
@nsequences
of action
o.
in
leaming
the
meaning endsignificance
ol moral
€d€,
tiliftA-
k
thatrow scores, especially
of
the
verbal
componentof
lhe tests.
mean
troubb
in
rr ml,
bffi$
to
frustralionand then to
resentrnent, anqer and
delinquency.
Slill 3nclher
ls
lhd
pGoob
utro
rtt
not as
skitful
as othe.s
in expressing lhemselves
verbauy
may lindit
nrorc
rctiartfirg
b
e$resr
themselves
in
ways
in
\^hich
they willdo better, such
as
physic€l
threal
or
torce-
For
some
repeat
offenders.
the
predispositioo
to
giminality
inay
bettprg
a
matter
ot
temperament
than
intelligence.
lmpulsfueness,insensitivity
to
social.no(es,
a lac*
of deep
and
enduringemotional
attachmentrs
lo
others
and
an
appetite
ir
danger
ate
among
the
'pr'
.ticrarr1ental
characledstiG
of
high-rate
oflenders.
TemF
emrDent
ls.
to a
degree.
inheriled,lho,rqh
i,otaS,qluchas intelligence. The
main
childhood
precrrrsoF
$ie.e
truan61,poorschool
pe#ormanee,theft,running
avray.
recklessness.
slovenliness,impulsiveness
and
guiltlessness.The moresymptomsin
childhood, thegreater the
risk
of
deviant
behaviour
in adulthood.
6
li
will take
yEars
lo
unravel the
complex
and
subtle
ways
in
which intelligence.
ternpeiatrEn!
iioiironal
le./els
and
other
traits
combine
with
familycircumstances
and
latet
experiencss
;l
ScJrarol
and
elsewhereto
producehuman character.
26
s@
15
2o',
&6Adaptod ,tDmt{YT
''lrgrnrrlr40
 
2
PASSAGE
R
outtaged
ind&aatiqLo{yo_ungpeople
at
theirlow sociai
staha.
to
his vid\x
sley
trrm
standards
up;ide;o\,r&.'
ttre-miodte
ctasses
vaiije
property
and
lo
th3t
is
to
destroy propsrty
aod behave
violentty.
This exfierne
IlaS
The
p.ocess
of
sociarization
is
inrimalelyconnected
wiih
disciprine
and
w{h
tle
staftdards
preyaililg
among
the.peopte
around
you.
lfdetinquencyis
pres"nirou"aG
J,oi,lrdi.i[.H
you.
a.e
very
st.onglyfodifiedagainstit,
you
lend
to
adapl
yoursetf
!o
it.
lr*r*4,il;;;
backgrolhd
ol
de,inquencyis
not
confinedto
the
neighbourhfu
in
wnicfr
ypu
pve.
ltt"
lu
*t i,
lhe
sociely_
as
a whole.
and
we
mayask whether
tiere
areany
teatuei?
o{r(
societv
wtrr.hmake
keepingthe
rules
difficult.
Are
there
any
pressureson
cerlain
seri5o.rs;
S;H-|T*
whichlead,them
to
behave
in
an
illegal wayor
m;ke
it
ditficutt
for
U*rn
!"
l".p
;6.;G;ffi
narrow
path?
\\
ll.:
P:
l11T::]
orls
manase
lo
keep
rhe
rures,
bul an
increasing
rxJrnber
o{
w
db
rrp(
we
rve
ln
a
socrely
tn
which
lhe
social
controls
whichcan
operate
insrBa&acde
gm![I&io
**
prettywell
absent.
ll
is
more
andmore
an
anonymous
.oclety
in
*trL*,
pcoele-I#I
eye
on
oneanotber
as
they
do
in
a
communlty
in
which the
relatio"sn,ps
aie,iucfl-Al#oe.L
r
and
face-lo-face.
.Thismeans
thatthe
sociat
controts
are
weat"r.
A"lidGe
$e$,
-#;;dffi]il
considerableagreement
aboutthe
basic
rutes.
an ag.eement
sharedby
d"ti;]t#"m#&;;
there isconsidelable
disagreement
about
moral
bsu;s.
iJfl
]:::-ll:
:.,"1"y
in.which.rhereis
comptere
homogeneiry
ofmorat
slandards,
I
ir
ffiqr$
!e
Irno
excuseslordeviant
behaviour.
ln
our
socjety lhis is not
lh€
case.
Vou
nrav
sfeat
sornCiiinr,
out
of
brevado,
because you
want
it,
or for
some
other,"".o*,
".,0,*;ffi;;?Ht:j1l:1lll"I:l
l.ass
it;
they.ve gortoomuch
in
any
case..
The
faa
thayor
irsdy
}||9;
efl
noErtes
a
tatnttwinge
ot
conscience,but
lhe
tact
lhat
you
cantind
.o.n"
*ay
ot;isiX*g
F;
ctionrneans
that
iour
sense
ofguilt
is
assuaged.
According
to
ttie.Ame.ican
criminologist.
Cohen,
nseless
crtnesot
qe\tiuctian
dlF
lo
SE
But
wlat
makesa boy
delinquentin
thefirst
place?
Two
other Arnerican
todohbi3,
(bfrndt
and
Ohlin.
telt
that
the
pressures
of
delinquency
simpty
stam
!!om
ltre;;;;"[;Eff
success
in
America,without
too
much
regard
to
how tho
money
b
acquirec.
ij"i;ilt$l**"ry,
tor
ey€mpte, rnake
their
pile
out
of
i
egal
gambting,
O;rgs.
anJ
vice,
redlE
tO
Sr9
suourDs.
and
tead
respeciablelives
as
invesiorsin rcal
estate. industry,
and
60
qr.
h
r
sor&[*
',rhicfivalueswealth
as an
gnd
in
itself,
irrespective
of
its
soiJr.e,in
*t
i"f,
f|g'pocciffiT
:,::lI:
ll]Yl!
g-r,":.llee
of
hish.starus,one can see
rh€attfaction
"f
,i";
Chrffi*;#
by.other
Am€rican
criminologists,
who
say thaiyoungdelimuenbdo
notoenavrour,tetatone
regard
it
as
wrong.
They
poinf
od
lhat
definquerdb(
an4
as
I
said
befo.e,
lusrincaton
impiies
a
ritrir
h"rtg.
.a;;;;;];.A;L*
there
does
seem
a
good
deat in
lhe
argumentthat the
Jeviant
yot
rg
"re
b;.illcd
gt,
America'sbig metropolitan
cities,but
it
couldhave
relevance
elsewtrere_
out
frorn
the
slum.
partic
larty
for
minority
groupsin
Amedca
wfo
"*n-be.'ffi;;&ffi
rough.
cgnventional
channels
ofschooland
worft.
An explosion
of
rtestrrrgiw
crHu;
b
f:cfir}:rj919t'-!:!:!1,
croward
arrd
ohtin.s
theory
.ppries
itn
speciair#t-ilt#ffi1fi
'l
Adrpl.d
ftorn
r,'a
(,af.rrt

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