Toyota’s Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle(PHV) oers an example o howprogress in sustainable mobilitycan benet rom partnerships.In Nov. 2007, Toyota deliveredprototype PHVs to the Universityo Caliornia’s Berkeley and Irvinecampuses, where researcherswill work with industry andstate partners to study userresponse to the technology andrecharging inrastructure needs.Meanwhile, Toyota has teamedup with France’s EDF Group, aleading player in the Europeanenergy industry, to evaluate
Plug-in, Drive Of
plug-in hybrid vehicles in Europe.Toyota’s PHVs are integratedinto EDF’s eet or testing onpublic roads in France. EDF andToyota are developing a systemthat will acilitate batterycharging at a new generationo public charging stationson roads and in car parks. Tomaximize the PHV’s potential,Toyota has ormed a partnershipwith Matsushita Electric tobegin developing high-perormance lithium-ionbattery technology,which oers higherenergy and outputdensities compared totoday’s conventionalnickel metal hydride(NiMH) battery type.
RIGHT: Whereasa regular hybridcan only chargeits battery whiledriving, a plug-inhybrid can also becharged from anexternal electricpower source,either in the homeor on the roadABOVE: PierreGadonneix,President andCEO of EDF (L)and MasatamiTakimoto,Executive VicePresident,Technology, of Toyota (R) withplug-in hybridroad-test modelin Europe
system called DPNR advanced catalytic convertertechnology. Toyota plans to expand and enhanceits environmentally–riendly diesel engine rangeto meet increasing demand. At the Detroit show,Watanabe announced that a new clean-diesel V8engine would be oered in both the Tundra ull-sizepickup and the Sequoia ull-size SUV, sold in NorthAmerica, in the near uture.The choice o alternatives or the uture dependson local conditions. For example, Brazil, with itsabundant sugarcane plantations producing rawmaterial or uel ethanol, is an ideal market orex-uel vehicles that can run on up to 100%ethanol. Next year, in North America, select 2009Tundra models equipped with the 5.7-liter V8 willhave exible uel capability to run on E85 ethanol.The latest technologies are being incorporatedinto specic product plans based on Toyota’sconcept o “the right vehicle, in the rightplace, at the right time.”
Saety and the City
Saety is an important element o sustainable mobility which looksat the urban environment wherethese new technologies will beused. “I want Toyota to developa dream car, a vehicle that cannotinjure people, and to help createan urban inrastructure that cankeep accidents rom happening,” saysWatanabe. “We have developed a Pre-crash Saety System, which oers eaturesthat include ront-end pedestrian detection andrear-end vehicle detection unctions, which couldbe described as the rst saety technologies o their kind.”Going beyond vehicle design, Toyota is workingwith local governments and academic researchersto develop smart inrastructures that willenhance saety and reduce trafc congestion. ThisIntelligent Transport System (ITS) technology usesvehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-inrastructurecommunication to reduce the burden on driversand minimize the risk o accidents.
Plug-in Hybrid:How it Works
Biouel is uel that’s developed rom organic material,usually plant matter. Biouels such as ethanolare considered to be ‘carbon neutral,’ that is, theCO
emitted into the atmosphere when the uel isconsumed is no greater than that taken rom theatmosphere during the plant’s growth. In otherwords, there is no net increase in carbon dioxide,one o the main gases implicated in global warming.Toyota is developing cellulosic ethanol productioncapability based on its biotechnology expertise,which will enable biouel to be obtained romnon-ood plant sources such as wood chips. Unliketoday’s biouels, which are made rom ood cropssuch as corn, sugarcane and soybeans, cellulosicethanol is made rom inedible plant materials,which will not aect ood supply and price.
Wood Chips: A Friendlier Biouel
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 20070.317.715.319.936.941.3
With regard to the vehicles themselves, Watanabenotes that “Automobiles produce not only CO
butalso NOx and other noxious emissions. The challengeis to come as close as possible to eliminatingthese. Our R&D team is continuously creatingcleaner conventional engines, while exploring everyalternative approach including ethanol, electricityand hydrogen. Hybrid technology is a core technologythat can improve environmental perormancein all energy and powertrain applications.”Unquestionably, Toyota is a pioneer in developingand marketing technology that addresses someo the causes o climate change. The automakerlaunched the world’s rst mass-producedgasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Prius, in1997. By January 2008, global cumulative saleso Toyota hybrid vehicles had topped 1.32 millionunits. In terms o combating global warming,the eect o these Toyota hybrid vehicles hasbeen to reduce carbon dioxide output by overve million tons. But rather than basking in itssuccess as the hybrid leader, Toyota is pursuingsustainable mobility with even greater eort.Goals include annual sales o one million hybridsby the early 2010s, ollowed by hybrid versionso all vehicle models during the 2020s.
Engines o Change
Toyota is revamping all o its conventionalengines and transmissions over the next twoyears to achieve improved air quality, increaseduel economy and a reduction in CO
output.These eorts extend to Toyota’s mass-produceddiesel engines eaturing a new diesel purication
ABOVE: Thenew ToyotaHighlanderHybridBELOW: TheToyota Biofueldivision
Worldwide Toyota HybridVehicle Sales
Unit= 1000 vehicles