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MICROBIOLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY

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MICROBIOLOGY
Learning Objectives:

After completion of training, the MBBS student should be able to understand the infectious diseases in terms of their etiology, pathogenesis, and laboratory diagnosis in order to efficiently treat, prevent and control the disease. To achieve this, the student should be able to:

1. Describe mechanism of host-parasite relationship.
2. Enumerate normal microbial flora and its importance in health and disease.
3. Describe etiology and pathogenesis of common infectious diseases.
4. Describe etiology and pathogenesis of opportunistic infections.
5. Choose appropriate laboratory investigation to support clinical diagnosis with respect to proper
sample collection, timing and transport of the specimens.
6. Describe suitable antimicrobial agents for treatment.
7. Understand the mechanism of immunity to infection.
8. Explain scope of immunotherapy and vaccines for prevention of infectious disease
9. Perform simple tests to arrive at rapid diagnosis.
10. Apply appropriate method of sterilization, disinfection and biomedical waste disposal in
hospital and community practice.
11. Explain the importance of National Health Programmes for prevention of communicable diseases

COURSE CONTENTS
Course Contents
Must
Know
Desirable
to know
General Microbiology:
\u2022
General concepts of infectious diseases prevalent in India (morbidity,
mortality data)
\u2022
Significant milestones in history of infectious diseases
\u2022
Definitions pertaining to infectious diseases.(eg: host, parasite,
endogenous, exogenous, transmission, routes, source, reservoir etc)
\u2022
Classification of microbes from clinical view point
\u2022
Normal microbial flora of humans and its importance in health and
disease.
\u2022
Bacterial cell: anatomy, physiology and genetics.
\u2022
Sterilization, disinfections and standard precautions in patient care and
disease prevention.
\u2022
Antimicrobials: mode of action, testing, interpretation of results and
rational use, mechanism of resistance.
Immunology:
\u2022
Immune apparatus, lymphoid organs, Immunobiology
\u2022
Antigen and antibody.
\u2022
Ag+Ab \u2013reactions, serology
\u2022
Cell and humoral immunity in health and disease
\u2022
Hypersensitivity
\u2022
Tumor immunity/transplantation an auto- immunity
Systematic Bacteriology:
\u2022

Gram Positive/Negative Cocci /Bacilli associated with human infections.
Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter
Mycobacteria,
Anaerobic bacteria
Spirochaetes
Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma
Miscellaneous bacteria of clinical importance.
Legionella,Listeria etc.

Virology:
\u2022
General properties, structure, replication, classifications.
\u2022
Antiviral agents.
\u2022
General concepts in laboratory diagnosis of viral infections.
\u2022
Herpes,Adeno,Arbo,Picorna,Orthomyxo,Paramyxo,Rabies,HIV,Hepatitis,
\u2022
Miscellaneous virus of medical importance: (Rota, Corona, etc)
\u2022
Viral vaccines.
\u2022
Pox, slow and oncogenic.
Parasitology:
\u2022
General concepts and definition of key terms, infections of national
prevalence.
\u2022

Protozoal infections prevalent in India:
Intestinal,
Blood
Genital

\u2022

Helminthes (Intestinal and tissue) prevalent in India.
Cestodes,
Nematodes:
Trematodes.

Mycology:
\u2022

General properties and classification of fungal diseases, approach to
laboratory diagnosis (sample collection, identification), antifungal
agents.

APPLIED Microbiology
\u2022
CNS Infections: Acute and chronic meningitis, encephalitis and brain
abscess.
\u2022
PUO/FUO: Infective and non infective causes and approach to diagnosis
\u2022
Diarrhoeal diseases(including food poisoning)
\u2022
Respiratory Tract Infection (Upper & Lower)
\u2022
UTI
\u2022
Wound infection
\u2022
Skin and soft tissue infections
\u2022
Eye and ear infections
\u2022
Sexually transmitted Infections
\u2022
Female genital tact infections
\u2022
Infections in immuno-compromised individuals
\u2022
Bone and Joint infections
\u2022
Hospital Associated Infections and its prevention.
\u2022
Zoonotic diseases.
\u2022
National Programmes of Communicable Diseases.
\u2022
Investigation of outbreaks and notification
Skills:
A medical student, in Microbiology, MUST be able to perform and interpret following
skillsI N D EPEN D EN TL Y.
1. Collection of relevant clinical samples. Blood-culture /serological tests

Urine for culture
Swabs for microscopy and culture of pus & other Body
fluids

2. Storage and transport of the clinical specimens
3. Preparation of smears of clinical material

4 Microscopic Examination - Gram stain.
Ziehl - Neelsen Stain
Stool for ova and cyst
Blood smear for parasites (MP, Mf).
Albert stain for diphtheria

Modified Z-N of stool for protozoa in immuno-compromised .
Modified Z-N for M. leprae.
India ink of CSF for cryptococcus

KOH for fungal elements
5. Standard (universal precautions): Hand wash, asepsis, and antisepsis.
6. Biomedical waste disposal: Needle, sharps disposal, Infectious material
7. Interpretation of Microbiology reports: Antibiotic sensitivity: Rational use of antibiotics, Serology:
VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis, ASO, RF, Widal Test.

Microscopy and Culture reports.

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