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Aquaculture

Aquaculture

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Published by Balaji Rao N
Aquaculture
Aquaculture

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Published by: Balaji Rao N on Dec 23, 2009
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Aquaculture
Aquaculture installations insouthern ChileAquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms such asfinfish,molluscs,crustaceansand aquatic plants.
Also known asaquafarming, aquaculture involves cultivating aquatic populations undecontrolled conditions, and can be contrasted withcommercial fishing, whichis the harvesting of wild fish.
One half of the world commercial productionof fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans comes fromaquaculture.
 Mariculturerefers to aquaculture practiced in marineenvironments. Particular kinds of aquaculture includealgaculture(the
 
 production of kelp/seaweedand other algae),fish farming,shrimp farming, oyster farming, and the growing of cultured pearls. Particular methods includeaquaponics, which integrates fish farming and plant farming.
History
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in MississippiAquaculture began inChinacirca 2500 BC.
When the waters subsidedafter river floods, some fishes, mainlycarp, were trapped inlakes. Nascent aquaculturists fed their brood usingnymphsandsilkwormfeces, and ate the fish for thei protein. A fortunate genetic mutation of carpled to the emergence of goldfishduring theTang Dynasty.
 
Hawaiianspracticed aquaculture by constructingfish ponds(seeHawaiian  aquaculture). A remarkable example is a fish pond dating from at least1,000 years ago, at Alekoko. Legend says that it was constructed by themythicalMenehune. TheJapanesecultivatedseaweedby providing bamboo   poles and, later, nets andoyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores. TheRomansbred fish in ponds.
In central Europe, early Christian monasteries adopted Roman aquacultural practices.
Aquaculture spread inEuropeduring theMiddle Ages, since away from the seacoasts and the big rivers, fish were scarce/expensive.Improvements in transportation during the 19th century made fish easilyavailable and inexpensive, even in inland areas, making aquaculture less popular.In 1859 Stephen Ainsworth of West Bloomfield, New York, beganexperiments with brook trout. By 1864 Seth Green had established acommercial fish hatching operation at Caledonia Springs, near Rochester, NY. By 1866, with the involvement of Dr. W. W. Fletcher of Concord Mass,artificial fish hatching operations were under way in both Canada and theUnited States.
When theDildo Islandfish hatchery opened in

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