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Potential and Current Transformers

Potential and Current Transformers

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Current and Voltage (Potential)Transformers are essential protection and metring devices for the high voltage (HV) applications. For an Electrical Engineer, study of these two devices is essential. You will find this little document big one in your way to the proper understanding of the two!
Current and Voltage (Potential)Transformers are essential protection and metring devices for the high voltage (HV) applications. For an Electrical Engineer, study of these two devices is essential. You will find this little document big one in your way to the proper understanding of the two!

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Published by: Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain on Jan 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Potential and CurrentTransformers
Engr. Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
 
Transformer
 A transformer is a device that transferselectrical energy from onecircuit  to another throughinductively coupledconductors—the transformer's coils. A  varyingcurrentin the first or primary winding creates a varyingmagnetic fluxin the transformer's core, and thus a varyingmagnetic fieldthrough the secondary  winding. This varying magnetic fieldinducesa varyingelectromotive force (EMF)  or " voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is calledmutual induction.
Figure 1:
 
Transformer-Basic Construction
If aloadis connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in thesecondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (V 
S
) is in proportion to the primary voltage (V 
P
),and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (N
S
) to thenumber of turns in the primary (N
P
) as follows:
 
By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows analternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making N
S
greater than N
P
,or "stepped down" by making N
S
less than N
P
. In the vast majority of transformers, the coils are wound around aferromagneticcore,air-core  transformers being a notable exception.Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized couplingtransformer hidden inside a stagemicrophoneto huge units weighing hundredsof tons used to interconnect portions of nationalpower grids. All operate with thesame basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While netechnologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electroniccircuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed forhousehold ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltagepower  transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.
Instrument transformers
Instrument transformers are used for measuring voltage and current inelectrical power systems, and forpower system protectionand control. where a voltage or current is too large to be conveniently used by an instrument, it can bescaled down to a standardized, low value. Instrument transformers isolatemeasurement, protection and control circuitry from the high currents or voltagespresent on the circuits being measured or controlled.
Figure 2:
 
Current transformers, designed for placing around conductors

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