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INSIGHT IIT JE CLASSES NALLAKUNTA HYDERABAD 040 64606657

MODULE – 2::NEWTONS LAWS OFMOTION

Syllabus :

Newton's laws of motion, Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and dynamic friction.

INERTIA :

The property by virtue of which a body retains its state of rest or of uniform motionalong a straight line. For example, we use the word pull the rug; when the rug under someones feet is pulled, his feet move along with the ring where as other part retains itsstationary state and the man falls

MASS

:

It is the measure of translational inertia i.e larger the mass, greater the inertia of abody and to change its state a greater external force has to be applied.

NEWTON'S FIRST LAW

:

If the net force acting on a body in a certain direction is zero, then the inertia of thebody in that direction is retained. i.e. if the body is at rest it will not move and if it is movingwith a constant speed in a certain direction it will not change either the direction or themagnitude of speed in that direction. The body will not accelerate in either of the cases.

FORCE

:

Broadly, forces can be divided into two categories

Field forces

Contact forces.Field forces are gravitational, electrostatic, electromagnetic etc., and contact forces arenormal reaction, tension, friction etc. We will discuss a few of them, which are important inthe present context.Gravitational force at a point is Mg where M is the mass of the body and g is theacceleration due to gravity at the point and it is directed towards the center of the earthnear the earth.

TENSION :

(a) In a string: If a string is tied to a body and is taut then tension acts on thebody. The number of tensions acting on the body is the number of segments joined to thebody. The direction of the tension on the body is along the string away from the point of attachment to the body.

Illustration – 1 :

Find the number of tensions acting on the bodym, wedge M and the wall.

Solution :

Number of points of attachment to M is 3Number of segments of thread attached to 1 is 2,Number of segments of thread attached to 2 is 2 ,Number of segments of thread attached to 3 is 1 ,So number of tension acting on M is 5At 1. one horizontally right (A) and one down the inclined plane (B)At 2. one up the inclined plane (C) and one vertically down wards (D)At 3. one towards right E

A

B

51

HG

F

EC

4

3

2

D

I

m

M

INSIGHT IIT JE CLASSES NALLAKUNTA HYDERABAD 040 64606657On the smaller block only one segment of thread is connected hence the tension isonly one and is vertically upwards. On the wall there are two points of attachment 4 and5At 4. one vertically upwards G and one horizontally left FAt 5. one horizontally leftwards I and the other vertically down wards HB) Tension in spring: In the spring, if the spring is extendedthen the tension is along the spring and away from thepoint of attachment to the body. And if the spring iscompressed the tension is towards the point of attachmentto the body.C) Tension in the rod: Tension in the rod is same as that insprings.

NORMAL REACTION:

It is a surface force. Normal reaction acts at right angles tothe tangent at the point of contact between two bodies. They act on different bodies and are equal and oppositeto each other.

FRICTION:

The force which opposes relative motionbetween two surfaces in contact. It is a self adjusting force.It's magnitude and direction changes in relation to themagnitude and the direction of the applied force (we will bediscussing in further detail about friction later) It is equal to theforce applied on it parallel to the common surface as longthere is no relative motion between the surface only, when thebottom surface is static

⇒

a = 0

Illustration – 2 :

All the surfaces are rough. Find the direction of friction on M

1

, M

2

andM

3

. as shown in the figure.

Solution :

As force is applied on M

1,

it will try to move towards right. Due to inertia M

3

and M

2

will be at rest. Surface of M

3

w.r.t M

1

willbe moving towards left. Therefore theforce of friction acts on the mass M

3

towards right. Looking from M

3

towardssurface 31, its motion w.r.t M

3

is towardsright. So, force of friction on surface 31of M

1

is towards left. On M

2

force of friction is towards right. On surface 12 at M

1

istowards left.

Free Body diagram :-

A free body diagram consists of a diagrammatic representation of all theforces acting on a single body or a subsystem of bodies isolated from its surroundings. The forces may lie along a line, may be distributed in a plane ( Coplanar) ormay be distributed in space ( non - Coplanar).

Illustration – 3 :

A thick book is pressed against a wall at the same time ahorizontal force parallel to the wall is applied on the book. Findthe direction of friction.

`

2

N

2

N

1

N

1

N

3

M

2

M

1

M

31

f

31

f

21

f

12

f

3

M

2

M

1

M

kxkx

INSIGHT IIT JE CLASSES NALLAKUNTA HYDERABAD 040 64606657

Solution :

The forces that produce a tendency to make thebody move are the weight of the book and thehorizontal force. Therefore the resultant directionof motion will be along the direction of resultantforce. So friction on the book will be opposite tothe resultant force.

EQUILIBRIUM:

If the net force acting on a body in a certaindirection is zero, then the body continues to move with constant velocity in that direction orremains at rest in that direction. We say that the body is under translated equilibrium when

∑∑

=⇒==⇒=

0a0f
0a0f

yyxx

Illustration – 4 :

A block of mass M = 20 kg hangs by a cord from a knot of negligible mass, which hangsfrom a ceiling by means of two other light cords. What are the tensions in the cords?

Solution :

Putting equilibrium condition along x-axis. F.B.D of k

x

F

= T

2

cos 53 - T

1

cos 37 = 0 T

2

cos 53 = T

1

cos 37 T

2

=

34

1

T

………..(i)Again putting equilibrium condition along Y- axis T

1

sin 37 + T

2

sin 53

0

- T = 0 and T - Mg = 0

⇒

T

1

sin37

0

+ T

2

sin53

0

= Mg T

1

(0.6) +

34

T

1

(0.8) = 200……………… (ii) T

1

(0.6 +

323

.

) = 200 T

1

=

Nx

12053200

=

T

2

=

34

T

1

= 160 N

Moment of a force :

The moment of a force (or) Torque about any point (or) axis is given as cross productof position vector

→

r

and force vector

→

F

τ

=

→→

Fxr

τ

= r F Sin

θ

, where '

θ

' is the angle between

→→

Fandr

τ

= Fr

⊥

If the line of action of a force passes through the axis of rotation, itsperpendicular distance from the axis is Zero.

∴

its Torque about that axis is Zero.If

Σ

τ

= 0 , the body is under rotational equilibrium.

F

Mg

F

Mg

Friction

tsul

tanRe

1

T

2

TT

K

20kgM

=

0

53

0

37

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