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Teaching Learning Strategies- Glossary of Terms

Teaching Learning Strategies- Glossary of Terms

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This is a Glossary of Terms used in the Teaching Learning Process, especially to describe certain Activities and strategies of Facilitation of Learning. I am posting it here for the benefit of all Teachers.
This is a Glossary of Terms used in the Teaching Learning Process, especially to describe certain Activities and strategies of Facilitation of Learning. I am posting it here for the benefit of all Teachers.

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Published by: Prof. (Dr.) B. L. Handoo on Apr 25, 2010
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01/26/2013

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TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES
GLOSSARY OF TERMSADVENTURE-BASED LEARNING
(See also experiential learning)
Learning activities focusing on individual growth and team building: in small groups that aredesigned to illustrate a variety of theoretical concepts by using specially designed outdoorexperiences; that can be applied to real world contexts. Adventure-based learning is a form of experiential learning.
BRAINSTORMING
Students are invited to quickly and freely generate ideas/ associations/ responses to a question orproblem or topic. This may be done in a variety of ways - individually by students on paper andthen responses are summarized on OHTs or the whiteboard by the teacher or in small groups withone student writing down the responses for later feedback to the whole class. The teacher or scribeaccepts all responses without judgment or comment in order to encourage divergent or lateralthinking.
BUZZ GROUPS
Large or small classes are broken into small groups of students to discuss a particularissue/problem/topic for 5 to 10 minutes. One student acts as reporter and/or scribe. Depending onthe size of the group, all or some groups are called upon to report on their discussion. Groupgenerated points can be summarized by students or teacher on an OHT or whiteboard or theteacher can provide his or her own solution or summary of important points. Buzz groups can assistin engaging students in more active learning and can give them opportunities for practice inproblem solving and critical thinking.
CASE STUDIES/CASE METHOD
(See also Simulations and games)
 The presentation of 'cases' or scenarios, based on actual practice; which students can discuss toexplore possibilities, probabilities and/or solutions. Case studies are used to develop student abilityto solve problems using new and existing knowledge, skills and concepts. McLennan (1974)identifies four phases to case studies:1.
 
scenario, objectives and procedures of case study established2.
 
students read, absorb and make notes on the case study in groups of three to six studentsshare their views, knowledge and skills and generate shared solutions3.
 
Plenary session to discuss 'best' solutions and teacher draws out underlying principles andproblems.
COLLABORATIVE/COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Learning strategies that involve "joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teacherstogether" should lead to students "mutually searching for understanding, solutions, or meanings orcreating a product"
COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING
The use of computers for instruction, described by a range of terms, including the following: CAI -computer assisted instruction; CBT - computer-based training; CMI - computer-managed
 
instruction or, for more interactive learning; CAL - computer assisted learning; IMM - interactivemultimedia which involves the use of multiple types of media (audio, video, graphics, animations,text) within a single desktop computer program.
COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION (CMC)
Computer technologies used to communicate in a range of contexts, including educational settings.These technologies include the following:
Asynchronous Communication
 Discussion boards - allow users to post messages via the Internet in a threaded discussion.Communication is usually facilitated by a lecturer.Email groups/lists - electronic mailing groups organized around themes, common interests,professional associations, course enrolments etc.
Synchronous (real-time) Communication
 IRC (Internet relay chat) - located on the Internet, users can engage in direct textualcommunication in real-time, accessing particular interest group chat lines.MUVE (multi-user virtual environment) - a more sophisticated version of 
IRC’s
, attempting tointegrate elements of nonverbal communication into dialogue.
CONCEPT MAPPING
A technique to allow students: to visually represent and inter-relate connections and/orrelationships between concepts, ideas or information, drawing on existing and newly introducedknowledge. Candy (1991) argues that "when students are asked to draw a concept map linkinggraphically the relationships between concepts in a particular field, they externalize theirunderstanding and put it in a form that can be read and interpreted by their teacher and peers".
CRITICAL INCIDENTS
Critical incidents from students' own routine practice are used as a focus point for critical reflectionand discussion. Any incident can become 'critical' when the student no longer takes it for granted,attempts to position it within a broader context and systematically analyses it.
DEBATE
The division of a class or individuals into groups: to represent particular points of view (mostcommonly 'for and against') on a controversial topic. Each group works to develop an argument tosupport its allocated point of view. Students could be invited to argue a view they don't endorse,engage in the debate in character or through role plays.
DEMONSTRATIONS
A practical presentation of a process or procedure or skills; which is designed to illustratetheoretical principles. Demonstrations require careful sequencing, oral and visual explanations,appropriate illustrations and opportunities for students to pose questions and clarify problems. Thedemonstration may take place within a lecture or as a supplementary class activity after a lecture.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING/EXPERIENCE-BASED LEARNING
(See also: Adventure-based learning; Problem-based learning; Project-based learning)
An approach to teaching and learning that is based on the presumption that every experience has
 
the potential to be an opportunity for learning. Students are placed in contexts or environmentswhere they can assimilate information and develop skills from being personally involved.Experiential learning strategies include role plays, games and simulations, case studies, problem-based learning, fieldwork and work-based education.
FLEXIBLE DELIVERY
Flexible delivery is the term used to describe means by which facilitation of effective, student-centered learning may be implemented (such as methods to deliver course content in new andnovel ways). Flexible delivery includes the provision of resources and the application of technologies to create, store and distribute course content and enrich communications to enablemore effective learning to occur.
FLEXIBLE LEARNING
Flexible learning is an overarching approach which emphasizes an education where learningopportunities and options are increased and where students have more control over the learningprocess. It focuses on improving learning outcomes and maximizing student engagement inlearning by using the most effective, varied and appropriate teaching and learning modes.
JIGSAW METHOD
A teaching strategy: where each student works on one part of a learning task and then workscollaboratively with a group of other students to combine the various parts and complete theactivity. The learning task/problem is broken into parts and students are asked to work on aresponse to that part-task individually. Then students working on the same part work in a grouptogether to come up with a response and check their understandings against those of otherstudents. Students then form into different groups in which each of the different parts of the task isrepresented, and each student explains to the others their response to their part of the problem.
JOURNALS
A formal repository for personal student writing that can be used to promote critical reflection,engagement with and synthesis of course concepts, and learning generally. The process of writingcan be more or less 'structured' or 'free', depending upon the learning objectives. There arenumerous approaches to journal writing in tertiary contexts, including the use of double-entry journals, dialogue journals, intensive journals, evaluative journals and traditional journals.
KELLER PLAN/PERSONALIZED SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION (PSI)
This system of individualized instruction was devised by Fred Keller from the University of Brasiliain the late sixties. Work in PSI courses is divided into between 10 to 20 topics or units and for eachunit the student receives a printed study guide. Each unit is to be completed at the student's ownpace within a specified time, supplemented by individual help during specified class hours,occasional lectures and tests administered by 'student proctors' (usually students who havesuccessfully studied the course previously). Progression to the next unit is always dependent uponsuccessful 'mastery' of earlier units.
LEARNING CIRCLES/LEARNING CELLS
A small group of students who participate in 'free' discussion and exploration of ideas, readings,issues, practice, where all views are valid. A typical learning circle is a group of 5 to 15 people whomeet with a facilitator who assists in focusing the discussion. Most commonly used with students

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