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Parts of Speech Table

Parts of Speech Table

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Published by: Lezly Pasmala Formaran on Jun 15, 2010
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Parts of Speech Table
This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech*. You can find more detail if you click oneach part of speech.
part of speechfunction or "job"example wordsexample sentences
Verbaction or state(to) be, have, do,like, work, sing,can, mustEnglishClub.com
is
a web site.I
like
EnglishClub.com. Nounthing or personpen, dog, work,music, town,London, teacher,JohnThis is my
dog
. He lives in my
house
. We live in
London
.Adjectivedescribes a nouna/an, the, 69,some, good, big,red, well,interestingMy dog is
big
. I like
big
dogs.Adverbdescribes a verb,adjective or adverbquickly, silently,well, badly, very,reallyMy dog eats
quickly
. Whenhe is
very
hungry, he eats
really
quickly.Pronounreplaces a nounI, you, he, she,someTara is Indian.
She
is beautiful.Prepositionlinks a noun toanother wordto, at, after, on, butWe went
to
school
on
Monday.Conjunction joins clauses or sentences or wordsand, but, whenI like dogs
and
I like cats. Ilike cats
and
dogs. I like dogs
but
I don't like cats.Interjectionshort exclamation,sometimes insertedinto a sentenceoh!, ouch!, hi!,well
Ouch
! That hurts!
Hi
! Howare you?
Well
, I don't know.
What are Verbs?
 
The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "
Stop!
" You cannot make a one-word sentencewith any other type of word.Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs givethe idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like
run, fight, do
and
work 
all convey action.But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like
be, exist, seem
and
belong 
all convey state.A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English",
 John
is the subjectand
 speaks
is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words thattell us what a subject
does
or 
is
; they describe:
action
(Ram plays football.)
state
(Anthony seems kind.)There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives,adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example, the verb
to work 
hasfive forms:
to work, work, works, worked, working 
Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may have thirtyor more forms for a single verb.
Verb Classification
We divide verbs into two broad classifications:
1. Helping Verbs
Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:
I
can
.
People
must
.
The Earth
will
.
Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probablynot! That's because these verbs are
helping verbs
and have no meaning on their own.They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell usvery much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main
 
verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least amain verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.
2. Main Verbs
 Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:
I
teach
.
People
eat
.
The Earth
rotates
.
Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you?Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are
main verbs
andhave meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs.In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helpingverb.
 
helping verb
 
main verb
  John likescoffee. You liedto me.They arehappy.The childrenare playing.Wemust gonow.Idonotwantany.
Helping Verbs
Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammaticalstructure of a sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helpingverbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning). There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups:

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