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EEM401 Professional Aspects of Electrical Engineering - Switches & Relays

EEM401 Professional Aspects of Electrical Engineering - Switches & Relays

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05/09/2012

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Instructor: Prof. Dr. Atalay BARKANA
ANADOLU UNIVERSITYDEPT. OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICSENGINEERINGEEM401Professional Aspects of Electrical Engineering
30.12.2009
Homework6: Switches & Relays
16169230356 Osman GÜLERCAN
 
I-Introduction:
"
 A switch
is anelectrical componentthat can break anelectrical circuit, interrupting the currentor diverting it from one conductor to another.
 
The most familiar form of switch is amanually operatedelectromechanicaldevice with one or more sets of electrical contacts.Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touchingand electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated andnonconducting."
1
"
 A relay
is anelectricallyoperatedswitch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find applicationswhere it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits,repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays foundextensive use in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Atype of relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor iscalled acontactor . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, insteadusing a semiconductor device triggered by light to perform switching. Relays with calibratedoperating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electricalcircuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called 'protection relays'."
2
II-Main Text
Relays & Switches
"Electrical
 switches
are devices utilized to manually control electric current flow. Manuallyoperated switches include an actuator used to cause making/breaking action of switch contactsto energize or de-energize one or more electrical circuits associated with the contacts. Inaddition to switching electrical signals responsive to physical actuation of the switch,electrical switches may include actuation indication including tactile feedback or audiblefeedback. Switches are available that are equipped with lamps used for helping people findthe switches in the dark. There are several different types of light
 switches
. Common switchtypes include rocker, toggle, push button, rotary, keylock, slide, snap action and reed
1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switch
2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay
 
switches.
Switches
are highly varied based on their intended utility. In electromechanicalsystems,
 switches
provide the function of making and breaking electrical contacts andconsequently electrical circuits. Switches responsive to fluid levels have utilized a variety of approaches for opening and closing an electrical circuit. Switches have found particular use inindustrial control systems, where it is often desirable to monitor conditions so that appropriateactions may be taken in response to the monitored conditions. A
relay
is used to performautomatic electrical switching. An electromechanical relay is opened or closed by energizingan electromagnet to either attract or repel a metal contact on a movable strip of metal. A solidstate
relay
has all its components made from solid state devices and involves no mechanicalmovement. They are compatible with digital circuitry and have a wide variety of uses withsuch circuits."
3
"A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as acomputer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as alight switch.Automatically-operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machinetool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by processvariables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting assensorsina process and used to automatically control a system. For example, athermostatis anautomatically-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated byanother electrical circuit is called arelay. Large switches may be remotely operated by amotor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be pad-locked if necessary to prevent accidentaloperation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock.
Switches:
Switches are classified according to the arrangement of their contacts in electronics.Electriciansinstalling building wiring use different nomenclature, such as "one-way", "two-way", "three-way" and "four-way" switches, which have different meanings in NorthAmerican and British cultural regions as described in the table below.Some contacts are normally open (Abbreviated "n.o." or "no") until closed by operation of theswitch, while others are normally closed ("n.c. or "nc") and opened by the switch action.
3
http://www.electronics-manufacturers.com/products/relays-switches/

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