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RL33574 - Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

RL33574 - Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

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01/26/2013

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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of theNorth-South Peace Agreement
Ted Dagne
Specialist in African AffairsMay 28, 2010
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL33574
 
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement Congressional Research Service
Summary
Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittentlyfor four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past twodecades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from theirhomes. There were many failed attempts to end the civil war in Southern Sudan. In July 2002, theSudan government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed a peaceframework agreement in Kenya. On May 26, 2004, the government of Sudan and the SPLMsigned three protocols on Power Sharing, on the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, and onthe long disputed Abyei area. The signing of these protocols resolved all outstanding issuesbetween the parties. On June 5, 2004, the parties signed “the Nairobi Declaration on the FinalPhase of Peace in the Sudan.” On January 9, 2005, the government of Sudan and the SPLMsigned the final peace agreement at a ceremony held in Nairobi, Kenya.The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge theNational Congress Party (NCP) government in Darfur. The crisis in Darfur in western Sudan hasled to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2.7 million people displaced, more than240,000 people forced into neighboring Chad, and an estimated 450,000 people killed. In July2004, the House and Senate declared the atrocities in Darfur genocide, and the BushAdministration reached the same conclusion in September 2004. On May 4, 2006, theGovernment of National Unity and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) signed theDarfur Peace Agreement (DPA) after almost two years of negotiations.In July 2007, the U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 1769, authorizing the deployment of arobust peacekeeping force to Darfur. The resolution calls for the deployment of 26,000peacekeeping troops to Darfur. The resolution authorizes the United Nations African UnionMission in Darfur (UNAMID) to take all necessary measures to protect its personnel andhumanitarian workers. As of February 2010, UNAMID deployed a total of 21,800 peacekeepingpersonnel. As of February 2010, 57 peacekeeping personnel have been killed in Darfur. In July2008, International Criminal Court (ICC) Chief Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo accusedPresident Omar Bashir of Sudan of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes and askedICC judges to issue an arrest warrant for President Bashir. On March 4, 2009, the ICC Pre-TrialChamber issued a warrant of arrest for President Bashir for war crimes and crimes againsthumanity.In late October 2009, the Obama Administration announced a new Sudan policy. The new Sudanpolicy focuses on three policy priorities: the crisis in Darfur, the implementation of the North-South peace agreement, and counter-terrorism. The new policy links the lifting of sanctions andincentives to verifiable progress on the ground.
 
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement Congressional Research Service
Contents
Recent Developments..................................................................................................................1
 
The April 2010 Elections: Background..................................................................................1
 
International And Local Election Observers...........................................................................1
 
National Presidential Elections Results..................................................................................2
 
South Sudan Presidential Elections Result.............................................................................2
 
The International Criminal Court (ICC).................................................................................2
 
Government of South Sudan Weapons in Kenya....................................................................3
 
Humanitarian Conditions......................................................................................................3
 
U.S. Policy Toward Sudan.....................................................................................................3
 
Current Views about the October 2009 Policy.......................................................................5
 
U.S. Humanitarian Funding...................................................................................................5
 
The International Criminal Court (ICC) and Sudan................................................................6
 
Background....................................................................................................................7
 
The SPLM Position.........................................................................................................8
 
The U.S. Response..........................................................................................................8
 
Security Conditions in Darfur................................................................................................8
 
North-South Developments...................................................................................................9
 
Darfur: Current Status of Peace Talks..................................................................................10
 
United Nations Peacekeeping in Darfur...............................................................................10
 
Executive Branch Sanctions on Sudan.................................................................................11
 
China and Sudan.......................................................................................................................12
 
Developments in Southern Sudan..............................................................................................13
 
Status of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement Historical Context.............................................15
 
The North-South Peace Agreement: Background.................................................................15
 
Implementation of the CPA.................................................................................................16
 
The United States and the North-South Peace Agreement....................................................17
 
The Crisis in Darfur: Background..............................................................................................18
 
Darfur Developments: Accountability for Atrocities............................................................19
 
The Janjaweed: Background................................................................................................21
 
The Darfur Peace Agreement and Status of Implementation.................................................22
 
The African Union and the Crisis in Darfur.........................................................................23
 
Possible Policy Options Concerning Darfur.........................................................................23
 
Engagement..................................................................................................................24
 
Sanctions......................................................................................................................24
 
Regime Change.............................................................................................................24
 
International Intervention..............................................................................................24
 
Bilateral Targeted Military Measures.............................................................................25
 
Tables
Table 1. U.S. Bilateral Assistance to Sudan..................................................................................5
 

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