JULY/AUGUST 2010 • ISSUE 92 • INFINITE ENERGY 2
ton. The model did not disclose the mechanism that bindsthe electron to a state, determine the probability of transition, or explain the intensity of the atomic spectra.Werner Heisenberg extended Bohr’s particlelike analysisand developed a mathematical technique that producedintensity of the spectral lines. His technique employedmatrix mechanics and the mathematical function known asthe Hamiltonian.
2
The Hamiltonian describes particle interactions as a function of their energy. The correspondenceprinciple was invoked. It states that the energy drop in aquantum system is equivalent to the amplitude of a classicalsystem. The position of the particle was obscured within theHamiltonian and the amplitude of the particle’s vibrationwas brushed aside with the help of the correspondence principle. The question of the fundamental nature of a substancewas avoided.Erwin Schrödinger proposed that matter is a wave. Hissolution was slightly better than Heisenberg’s in that it incorporated de Broglie’s electron waves. The use of the de Brogliewave presented a conceptual problem.The de Broglie waveconsists of a packet of waves that travel together at the groupvelocity
V
. The length of the packet decreases as its velocityincreases. It is a curious mathematical construct with noclassical analog. It has become accepted because it producesresults. Schrödinger encountered a second conceptual problem. How do the discrete properties of matter naturallyemerge from a continuous wave? He proposed that thesuperposition of an infinite number of waves localized thewave function.
3
Wave patterns repeat at intervals. The solution suggests that the particle appears at intervals in remotelocations. Matter’s particle nature did not spontaneouslyemerge from the analysis and Planck’s empirical constant,and had to be injected
ad hoc
into the solution.Max Born offered a solution, known as the Copenhageninterpretation. It proposes that matter’s de Broglie wave isnot real. It is a subjective construct that exists only in configuration space. The amplitude of this wave represents theprobability that a particle of matter will reside at certainlocations. A particle emerges, from the probability wave,upon the immediate collapse of the wave function. The solution attempted to extract a particle out of a wave and resolvethe problem of wave particle duality. The interpretation didnot provide for a mechanism to bind the electron to a state,disclose the whereabouts of configuration space, or explainhow a continuous wave collapses at velocities greater thanlight speed. Schrödinger and Einstein never accepted thisinterpretation. The nature of the substance of the universeremained a mystery. The duality of nature remained irreconcilable.
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ZNIDARSIC’S INTERPRETATION
My model reveals the mechanism that bundles a wave witha particle. The binding mechanism is classical. Classical systems are constructed by fastening components together.Fasteners are mechanical discontinuities. The same bindingmechanism can attach a field. The electromagnetic field is,for example, pinned into the structure of a superconductorby introduced defects (discontinuities). This interpretationstates that the natural force fields are pinned into the structure of matter at elastic discontinuities. Discontinuities naturally emerge when the intensity of a field exceeds the ability of space to support that field. The discontinuity acts as apilot and replaces Heisenberg’s and Schrödinger’s superposition of waves construct. The use of a single binding mechanism is a simplification, in accordance with the principle of Occam’s razor.Charles Coulomb studied the force between electricalcharges. He qualified the energy
E
contained by the interaction of two electrical charges
Q
. Coulomb’s formulation(Equation 1) did not disclose the mechanism that binds anelectron to a state.The energy contained by a classical spring is proportionate to the product of the spring constant
K
and the square of the displacement
x
(Equation 2). This formula is usuallyemployed with a fixed spring constant
K
and a variable displacement
x
.I regrouped the constants in Equation 1 into the form thatexpresses the elastic energy of a spring. This formulation,Equation 3, expresses both wavelike and particlelike properties. It describes electrical energy in terms of the movement of the fixed (particlelike) displacement 2
r
p
within thevariable elastic medium
K

e
.The displacement 2
r
p
is twice that of the maximum extentof the proton. It equals the classical radius of the electron.Mass and kinetic energy are pinned into the structure of matter at this discontinuity. The phase velocity of disturbances within the pinned fields is luminal. The group velocity
V
of the packet is that of the discontinuity. The conditionresembles that of stuck light. de Broglie suggested that thematter wave naturally emerges from the superposition of theCompton wave and its Doppler shifted reflection, under thiscondition.
5
The properties of special relativity also emerge asa condition of stuck light.
6,7
The variable elastic constant
K

e
(Equation 4) also emergedas a result of the regrouping of the electrical constants. Iemployed this elastic constant and produced the atomicenergy levels and the intensity of the spectral emission.
8
This analysis showed that the wavelike properties of matteremerge from its mass and elasticity. This harmonic is real; noconfiguration space is required.The product of the harmonic frequency and the particle’sdisplacement is the velocity
V
t
. This velocity, as expressed byEquation 5, was extracted from the results of cold fusionexperiments. The first term in Equation 5 equals the diameter of the active nuclear environment. The second term represents the natural frequency of an active environment.I presented my theorem at a conference of the AmericanNuclear Society in 2000.
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It describes the action of
V
t
: “Theconstants of the motion tend toward the electromagnetic ina Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimension fre
E
=(1/
r
)(1)2
Q
2
4
π
e
o
E
=
Kx
2
(2)12
E
=
K

e
(2
r
p
)
2
(3)12
K

e
=(4)
F
max
r V
t
= (2
π
nr
p
)(
f
c
/
n
)(5)