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Journal Article One

Journal Article One

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Published by: daveugal on Jul 20, 2010
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10/25/2012

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 KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN OGOJA ANDOBUDU LGAs OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
Ugal David B. Ph.D
Department of SociologyFaculty of the Social SciencesUniversity of IbadanIbadan – NigeriaTelephone: +2348057792492Email:daveugal@yahoo.com
Abstract
Sexual behaviour in human societies is embedded in a complex web of shared ideas. Moral rulesand regulations, obvious associations and obscured symbols are part of the complex behaviour  patterns. Sexual behaviour varies from one culture to another, from one stage of development toanother as well as from one period of history to another. Many factors including biological,social, political, educational, economic and religious affect sexual behaviour. This Study wasundertaken to assess the knowledge of women of modern contraception, examine the role of culture in contraception use and find out the relation between background characteristics andcontraception use. The results of this study indicate that knowledge of contraception is relativelylow in both rural and urban centres of the study area. Given the importance of family planning tothe reduction of growing population, it is crucial to embark on an aggressive education andenlightenment of the people on the need to use contraception in order to prevent unwanted,unintended and ill-timed pregnancies. The media should be effectively harnessed to take itsrightful position in the dissemination of information to the people.
Background of the Study
Sexual behaviour in human societies is embedded in a complex web of shared ideas. Moral rulesand regulations, obvious associations and obscured symbols are part of the complex behaviour  patterns. Sexual behaviour varies from one culture to another, from one stage of development toanother as well as from one period of history to another. Many factors including biological,social, political, educational, economic and religious affect sexual behaviour. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with more than 140 million people; it also has ahigh annual rate of population growth (4.5%) and a total fertility rate of 6.0 lifetime births per woman. Additionally, the country has relatively high levels of infant mortality (104 infant deaths1
 
 per 1,000 live births) and maternal mortality (800 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Inresponse to these and other serious demographic and health issues, the Nigerian government putinto effect a national population policy in 1989 reviewed in 2004 that called for a reduction inthe birthrate through voluntary fertility regulation methods compatible with the nation'seconomic and social goals.Despite high birthrates in most of Nigeria, government population and development policiesstress economic development rather than attempts to reduce fertility. The contraceptiveinformation and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex (Ozumba et al., 2005).Oye-Adeniran et al., (2004)indicated that large numbers of Nigerian women experienceunwanted or mistimed pregnancies and births. According to a 1997 survey of women insouthwestern Nigeria, at least 27% of women had ever been pregnant when they did not want to be. Similarly, in a survey conducted in southwestern and northern Nigeria in the mid-1990s,20% of women reported ever having experienced an unwanted pregnancy.Okonofua et al.,(1999).The 2003 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found that of live births to women inthe previous three years, 15% were reported to be unplanned. It has been estimated that about12% of all pregnancies in Nigeria (not including those that result in spontaneous abortion) end ininduced abortion, and another 9% result in unplanned births (Henshaw et al.,1998).Unintended pregnancy poses significant public health risks. One consequence of unwanted pregnancy is induced abortion. In the mid-1990s, the abortion rate in Nigeria was estimated at 25 per 1,000 women. At this rate, approximately 760,000 abortions will occur in 2006. Becauseabortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save a woman's life, many procedures are conducted under unsafe conditions and carry a substantial risk of maternal morbidity(Makinwa-Adebusoye etal.,1997)and mortality. It is estimated that about 25% of women who have abortions in Nigeriaexperience serious complicationsOye-Adeniran et al., (2004).According to national surveys, Nigerian women and couples want fewer children than they once did: Between 1990 and 2003,the mean desired number of children declined from 5.8 to 5.3.(Bankole A et al., 2006).Even so,levels of contraceptive use remain low: In 2003, only 7% of married women used a moderncontraceptive method and another 6% relied on a traditional or folk method (Hussain R et al.,2005). The combination of low contraceptive use and smaller desired family size implies highlevels of unmet need for family planning in Nigeria. Indeed, among married women of reproductive age, 32% do not want to have a child in the near future but are not using a moderncontraceptive method, and are therefore at risk of an unwanted pregnancy(Hussain et al., 2005).
 
Research on reasons for family planning nonuse in Nigeria generally points to women's perceived lack of need for contraception, fear of side effects and opposition to contraception on personal or religious grounds(NPC, 2004).Less is known about the circumstances surroundingwomen's unwanted pregnancies and their reasons for seeking to terminate some of these pregnancies. The limited evidence available from small studies in various parts of Nigeriagenerally points to such reasons as a wish to space births, economic constraints, the desire toremain in school and not being married (Oye-Adeniran et al., 2004).The purpose of this study isto examine the current incidence of unwanted pregnancy among women of reproductive age ineight states in Nigeria and to explore the factors associated with it. We utilize an approach that isdesigned to minimize underreporting and to elicit reports of all unwanted pregnancies, regardlessof their outcomes. In addition, we explore women's reasons for not wanting a pregnancy, the barriers they face to effective contraceptive use, and their use of abortion to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Furthermore, we examine the level of risk of unwanted pregnancy and the reasonsgiven for not practicing contraception by women who are at risk.Several studies have reported changes in Nigerians' knowledge of and attitudes toward family planning. These studies, however, did not examine the association between attitudes towardcontraception and its use.Although studies have examined aspects of these issues in certain partsof Nigeria, this study provides a more comprehensive analysis of the circumstances aroundunintended pregnancies and the use of contraception. A better understanding of the underlyingand more immediate factors associated with unwanted pregnancy can inform the development of  programmes and policies that will help couples avoid unwanted or mistimed pregnancies
Study Objectives
The main objective of the study is to examine the knowledge and use of contraception amongwomen in Obudu and Ogoja Local Government Areas of Cross River States, Nigeria.Specifically the study seeks to:
Ascertain the women’s knowledge about contraception.
Identify the types of contraception that they know.
Examine how background socio demographic characteristics affect their use of contraception.
Explore how knowledge influences the use of contraception.
Identify other factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception.
Research Questions
3

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