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History of Operations Research

History of Operations Research

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Published by Al Engg
A Brief History Of Operations Research
A Brief History Of Operations Research

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Published by: Al Engg on Aug 08, 2010
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History of Operations Research
Along the history, is frecuent to find collaboration among scientists and armiesofficer with the same objetive, ruling the optimal decision in battle. In fact thatmany experts consider the start of Operational Research in the III century B.C.,during the II Punic War, with analysis and solution that Arquimedes named for thedefense of the city of Syracuse, besieged for Romans. Enter his inventions wouldfind the catapult, and a system of mirrors that was setting to fire the enemy boatsby focusing them with the Sun's rays.Leornado DaVinci took part, in 1503, like engineer in the war against Prisa due tohe knew techniques to accomplish bombardments, to construct ships, armoredvehicles, cannons, catapults, and another warlike machines.Another antecedent of use of Operational Research obeys to F.W. Lanchester, whomade a mathematical study about the ballistic potency of opponents and hedeveloped, from a system of equations differential, Lanchester's Square Law, withthat can be available to determine the outcome of a military battle.Thomas Edison made use of Operational Research, contributing in theantisubmarine war, with his greats ideas, like shields against torpedo for the ships.From the mathematical point of view mathematical, in centuries XVII and XVIII,Newton, Leibnitz, Bernoulli and Lagrange, worked in obtaining maximus andminimums conditionated of certain functions. Mathematical French Jean BaptisteJoseph Fourier sketched methods of present-day Linear Programming. And at lateyears of the century XVIII, Gaspar Monge laid down the precedents of theGraphical Method thanks to his development of Descriptive Geometry.Janos Von Neumann published his work called "Theory of Games", that providedthe basics Mathematicians to Linear Programming. At a later time, in 1947, heviewed the similitude among them Programming linear problems and the matrixtheory that developed himself.In 1939, mathematical Russian L. Kantorovich, in association with themathematical Dutchman T. Koopmans, developed the mathematical theory called"Linear programming", thanks to that went rewarded with the Nobel.In the late years 30, George Joseph Stigler presented a particular problem knownas special diet optimal or more commonly known as problem of the diet, that
 
happened because the worry of the USA army to guarantee some nutritionalsrequests to the lower cost for his troops. It was solved with a heuristic methodwhich solution only differ in some centimes against the solution contributed yearslater by the Simplex Method.During the years 1941 and 1942, Kantorovich and Koopmans studied inindependent ways the Transport Problem for first time, knowing this type of problems like problem of Koopmans-Kantorovich. For his solution, they usedgeometric methods that are related to Minkowski's theory of convexity.But it does not considered than has been born a new science called OperationsResearch until the II World War, during battle of England, where Deutsche AirForce, that is the Luftwaffe, was submitting the Britishers to a hard Air raid, sincethese had an little aerial capability, although experimented in the Combat. TheBritish government, looking for some method to defend his country, convokedseveral scientists of various disciplines for try to resolve the problem to get thepeak of benefit of radars that they had. Thanks to his work determining the optimallocalization of antennas and they got the best distribution of signals to double theeffectiveness of the system of aerial defense.To notice the range of this new discipline, England created another groups of thesame nature in order to obtain optimal results in the dispute. Just like United States(USA), when joined the War in 1942, creating the project SCOOP (ScientificComputation Of Optimum Programs), where was working George BernardDantzig, who developed in 1947 the Simplex algorithm.During the Cold War, the old Soviet Union (URRS), excluded of the PlanMarshall, wanted to control the terrestrial communications, including routesfluvial, from Berlin. In order to avoid the rendition of the city, and his submissionto be a part of the deutsche communist zone, England and United States decidedsupplying the city, or else by means of escorted convoys (that would be able togive rise to new confrontations) or by means of airlift, breaking or avoiding in anyevent the blockage from Berlin. Second option was choosed, starting theLuftbrücke (airlift) at June 25, 1948. This went another from the problems in wichworked the SCOOP group, in December of that same year, could carry 4500 dailytons, and after studies of Research Operations optimized the supplying to get to the8000~9000 daily tons in March of 1949. This cipher was the same that would havebeen transported for terrestrial means, for that the Soviet decided to suspend theblockage at May 12, 1949.

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