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Intro Wan

Intro Wan

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Published by Pavan Kumar

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Published by: Pavan Kumar on Jun 27, 2008
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CHAPTER
Introduction to WAN Technologies
3-1
3
Introduction to WAN Technologies
This chapter introduces the various protocols and technologies used in wide- area network (WAN)environments. Topics summarized here include point-to-point links, circuit switching, packetswitching, virtual circuits, dialup services, and WAN devices. Later chapters in this book discussWAN technologies in more detail.
What is a WAN?
AWANisadatacommunicationsnetworkthatcoversarelativelybroadgeographicareaandoftenuses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WANtechnologies function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, thedata link layer, and the network layer. Figure3-1 illustrates the relationship between the commonWAN technologies and the OSI model.
 
Point-to-Point Links
Internetworking Technology Overview, June 1999
3-2Figure3-1 WAN technologies operate at the lowest levels of the OSI model.
Point-to-Point Links
A
point-to-point link 
provides a single, preestablished WAN communications path from thecustomerpremisesthroughacarriernetwork,suchasatelephonecompany,toaremotenetwork.Apoint-to-pointlinkisalsoknownasaleasedlinebecauseitsestablishedpathispermanentandfixedfor each remote network reached through the carrier facilities. The carrier company reservespoint-to-point links for the private use of the customer. These links accommodate two types of transmissions:datagramtransmissions,whicharecomposedofindividuallyaddressedframes,anddata-stream transmissions, which are composed of a stream of data for which address checkingoccurs only once. Figure3-2 illustrates a typical point-to-point link through a WAN.
Figure3-2 A typical point-to-point link operates through a WAN to a remote network.
   i   t   h   0   3   0   1
OSI Layers
MACSublayer
WAN Specifications
   S   D   L   C   L   A   P   B   X .   2   5   P   L   P   X .   2   1   b   i  s   P   P   P   H   D   L   C   F  r  a  m  e   R  e   l  a  y
PhysicalLayerNetworkLayerEIA/TIA-232EIA/TIA-449V.24 V.35HSSI G.703EIA-530
   S   M   D   S
Data LinkLayer
   1   2   3   2   3
WAN
 
Introduction to WAN Technologies
3-3Circuit Switching
Circuit Switching
Circuit switching is a WAN switching method in which a dedicated physical circuit is established,maintained, and terminated through a carrier network for each communication session. Circuitswitching accommodates two types of transmissions: datagram transmissions and data-streamtransmissions. Used extensively in telephone company networks, circuit switching operates muchlike a normal telephone call. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is an example of acircuit-switched WAN technology, and is illustrated in Figure3-3.
Figure3-3A circuit- switched WAN undergoes a process similar to that used for atelephone call.
Packet Switching
PacketswitchingisaWANswitchingmethodinwhichnetworkdevicesshareasinglepoint-to-pointlink to transport packets from a source to a destination across a carrier network. Statisticalmultiplexingisusedtoenabledevicestosharethesecircuits.AsynchronousTransferMode(ATM),Frame Relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and X.25 are examples of packet-switched WAN technologies (see Figure3-4).
   1   2   3   2   4
WAN
CarrierNetworkSwitchCustomerPremisesDCEDCEDCE

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