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OD

OD

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Published by hedyaguila

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Published by: hedyaguila on Jul 01, 2008
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02/29/2012

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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD)
Organizational development plan is the process through which an organization developsthe internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustainitself over the long term. This definition highlights the explicit connection betweenorganizational development work and the achievement of organizational mission. Thisconnection is the rationale for doing OD work.
Organization development
, according toRichard Beckhard, is defined as:1.A planned effort...2.organization-wide...3.managed from the top...4.to increase organization effectiveness and health...5.through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes', using behavioralscience knowledge.According to Warren Bennis, organization development (OD) is a complex strategyintended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so thatthey can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges.Warner Burke emphasizes that OD is not just "anything done to better an organization"; itis a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of endresult. OD involves organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis.The term "Organization Development" is often used interchangeably with Organizationaleffectiveness, especially when used as the name of a department or a part of the HumanResources function within an organization.
Organizational effectiveness
Organizational effectiveness
is the concept of how effective an organization is inachieving the outcomes the organization intends to produce. The idea of organizationaleffectiveness is especially important for non-profit organizations as most people whodonate money to non-profit organizations and charities are interested in knowing whether the organization is effective in accomplishing its goals.An organization's effectiveness is also dependent on its communicative competence andethics. The relationships between these three are simultaneous. Ethics is a foundationfound within organizational effectiveness. An organization must exemplify respect,honesty, integrity and equity to allow communicative competence with the participatingmembers. Along with ethics and communicative competence, members in that particular group can finally achieve their intended goals.
 
Organizational effectiveness is an abstract concept and is basically impossible tomeasure. Instead of measuring organizational effectiveness, the organization determines proxy measures which will be used to represent effectiveness. Proxy measures used mayinclude such things as number of people served, types and sizes of population segmentsserved, and the demand within those segments for the services the organization supplies.For instance, a non-profit organization which supplies meals to house bound people maycollect statistics such as the number of meals cooked and served, the number of volunteers delivering meals, the turnover and retention rates of volunteers, thedemographics of the people served, the turnover and retention of consumers, the number of requests for meals turned down due to lack of capacity (amount of food, capacity of meal preparation facilities, and number of delivery volunteers), and amount of wastage.Since the organization has as its goal the preparation of meals and the delivery of thosemeals to house bound people, it measures its organizational effectiveness by trying todetermine what actual activities the people in the organization do in order to generate theoutcomes the organization wants to create.Activities such as fundraising or volunteer training are important because they providethe support needed for the organization to deliver its services but they are not theoutcomes per se. These other activities are overhead activities which assist theorganization in achieving its desired outcomes.The term Organizational Effectiveness is often used interchangeably with OrganizationDevelopment, especially when used as the name of a department or a part of the HumanResources function within an organization.
Human resources
Human resources
have at least two meanings depending on context. The original usagederives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor,one of three factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm'sorganization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues. Thisarticle addresses both definitions.Human resource management serves these key functions:1.Hiring (recruitment)2.Compensation3.Evaluation and Management (of Performance)4.Promotions5.Managing RelationsIt is the responsibility of human resource managers to conduct these activities in aneffective, legal, fair, and consistent manner.
 
The objective of Human Resources (HR's raison d'etre) is
to maximize the return oninvestment from the organization's human capital
"Human resource management aims to improve the productive contribution of individuals while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individualemployee objectives." Schwind, Das & Wagar (2005)In reality, human resources deals with two different worlds1) Non-Unionized - Where management has the control, and2) Unionized - Where there is shared control through a collective agreement -Management and a union negotiate a collective agreement with respect to terms andconditions of employment. The Union represents employees to management. (That is theUnion speaks for employees, both collectively and individually)Collective Agreements - Can cover any and all terms and conditions of employment.Collective agreements become "the Bible," the code and are binding in law. - Disputes of the collective agreement are resolved by arbitration.
Human resources in political economy and social sciences
Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not
"commodities"" 
or 
"resources" 
, but are creative and social beings that make contributions beyond 'labor' to a society andto civilization. The broad term human capital has evolved to contain some of thiscomplexity, and in micro-economics the term "firm-specific human capital" has come torepresent a meaning of the term "human resources."Advocating the central role of "human resources" or human capital in enterprises andsocieties has been a traditional role of socialist parties, who claim that value is primarilycreated by their activity, and accordingly justify a larger claim of profits or relief fromthese enterprises or societies. Critics say this is just a bargaining tactic which grew out of various practices of medieval European guilds into the modern trade union and collective bargaining unit.
A contrary view, common to Workforce planning
Strategic Workforce Planning
involves analyzing and forecasting the talent thatcompanies need to execute their business strategy, proactively rather than reactively, it isa critical strategic activity, enabling the organization to identify, develop and sustain theworkforce skills it needs to successfully accomplish its strategic intent whilst balancingcareer and lifestyle goals of its employees.Strategic Workforce Planning is a relatively new management process that is being usedincreasingly to help control labor costs, assess talent needs, make informed businessdecisions, and assess talent market risks as part of overall enterprise risk management.Strategic workforce planning is aimed at helping companies make sure they have theright people in the right place at the right time and at the right price

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