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Histology, Lecture 12, The Lymphatic System (LEcture Notes)

Histology, Lecture 12, The Lymphatic System (LEcture Notes)

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Published by Ali Hassan Al-Qudsi
Histology, Lecture 12, The Lymphatic System (LEcture Notes)
Histology, Lecture 12, The Lymphatic System (LEcture Notes)

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Published by: Ali Hassan Al-Qudsi on Nov 05, 2010
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11/09/2012

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The Lymphatic System:
Lymphoid Tissue:
The
Lymphoid tissue
or
Lymphatic Connective tissue
 is a
r
eticula
r
c
onn
ective tissue i
nf 
ilt
r
ated by lymph
o
cytes,Lymph
o
id tissue ca
n
eithe
r
exist as:
*recall that reticular fibers are made of type 3 Collagen
A-
 
D
i
ff 
used withi
n
the bl
oo
d a
n
d tissue.
B
-
 
A
s lymph
o
id
no
dules (sphe
r
ical
or
 
o
v
o
id shaped agg
r
egati
on
 
of 
the lymphatic tissue),c
o
mp
o
sed mai
n
ly
of 
 
B
-Lymphocytes
Whe
n
eve
r
the
r
e is a path
o
ge
n
ic i
n
vasi
on
leadi
n
g t
o
exp
o
su
r
e t
o
a
n
tige
n
s the ce
n
te
r
 
of 
the lymph
o
id
no
duleslymph
o
cytes u
n
de
r
g
o
di
ff 
e
r
e
n
tiati
on
a
n
d mit
o
sis
r
esulti
n
g i
n
a lightly stai
n
ed a
r
ea called the 
Germinal center
, s
o
thege
r
mi
n
al ce
n
te
r
is the ce
n
te
r
 
of 
the lymph
o
id
no
dules whe
r
e the
r
e is high mit
o
tic activity. Ge
r
mi
n
al ce
n
te
r
s a
r
echa
r
acte
r
ized by the p
r
ese
n
ce
of 
a speci
ic type
of 
cell called
Follicular Dendtric Cells
which have the capability
of 
bi
n
di
n
ga
n
tige
n
s (
for
eig
n
b
o
dies) t
o
its multiple su
rf 
aces, the
r
e
for
e
r
etai
n
i
n
g the a
n
tige
n
s
for
exte
n
ded pe
r
i
o
ds all
o
wi
n
g them (thea
n
tige
n
s) t
o
i
n
te
r
act with B-Lymph
o
cytes. (I
n
 
o
the
r
w
or
ds the Ge
r
mi
n
al ce
n
te
r
has special cells called the F
o
llicula
r
 
D
e
n
dt
r
ic Cells which bi
n
d a
n
tige
n
s t
o
them all
o
wi
n
g them t
o
i
n
te
r
act with B-lymph
o
cytes, which makes a
n
tib
o
dies t
o
 de
e
n
d agai
n
st the i
n
vadi
n
g a
n
tige
n
s).Lymph
o
id
no
dules a
r
e p
r
ese
n
t i
n
ma
n
y a
r
eas such as the muc
o
sa ass
o
ciated lymph
o
id tissue, lymph
no
des, splee
n
 a
n
d the t
on
sils i
n
additi
on
t
o
ma
n
y
o
the
r
places. Images
of 
the lymphatic tissue (hist
o
l
o
gical slides) a
r
e
impregnated withSilver to stain the Reticular fibers
givi
n
g them a
B
lack/Dark brown
c
o
l
or
, s
o
these
r
eticula
r
 
ibe
r
s c
onn
ect t
o
gethe
r
 
for
mi
n
ga meshw
or
k i
n
the lymph
o
id tissue all
o
wi
n
g the attachme
n
t
of 
di
ff 
e
r
e
n
t cells mai
n
ly lymph
o
cytes. I
n
the Lymphatic tissuey
o
u ca
n
sp
o
t the
Specialized reticular cells
which p
ro
duce the
r
eticula
r
 
ibe
r
s, y
o
u ca
n
als
o
see mac
ro
phages, plasma cells(y
o
u ca
n
 
r
ec
o
g
n
ize them by the ext
r
i
n
sically placed
n
ucleus).
 
Lymphoid Organs:
The
r
e a
r
e
of 
c
o
u
r
se lymph
or
ga
n
s besides the lymphatic tissue, these
or
ga
n
s ca
n
be split i
n
t
o
tw
o
types:
A-
 
P
r
ima
r
y (ce
n
t
r
al) lymph
o
id
or
ga
n
s
B
-
 
Sec
on
da
r
y (pe
r
iphe
r
al) lymph
o
id
or
ga
n
sThe p
r
ima
r
y lymph
o
id
or
ga
n
s a
r
e i
n
v
o
lved i
n
the p
ro
ducti
on
a
n
d matu
r
ati
on
 
of 
lymph
o
cytes; p
r
ima
r
ylymph
o
id
or
ga
n
s a
r
e the
B
one Marrow, and the Thymus.
B
one marrow produces
B
- Lymphocytes
a
n
d the
Thymus produces T-Lymphocytes,
t
r
ue the b
on
e ma
rro
w p
ro
duces b
o
th types
of 
lymph
o
cytes but be
for
e the T-Lymph
o
cytes a
r
e
ully matu
r
e they mig
r
ate t
o
the thymus t
o
c
o
mpletely matu
r
e the
r
e (which is why the thymus isc
on
side
r
ed a p
r
ima
r
y lymph
or
ga
n
).
A
ll
o
the
r
lymph
o
id
or
ga
n
s a
r
e sec
on
da
r
y lymph
or
ga
n
s, i
n
cludi
n
g: splee
n
, t
on
sils, appe
n
dix,
no
dules, theski
n
, a
n
d ade
no
ids.
A
s we al
r
eady me
n
ti
on
ed the thymus is i
n
v
o
lved i
n
the p
ro
ducti
on
 
of 
T-lymph
o
cytes which a
r
e the
n
 supplied t
o
the
o
the
r
 
or
ga
n
s. The thymus itsel
 
r
eaches c
o
mplete matu
r
ity at bi
r
th, a
n
d the
n
sh
r
i
n
k (at
ro
phied)a
te
r
 
r
eachi
n
g pube
r
ty. The thymus has dual emb
r
y
on
ic
or
igi
n
, its p
r
ecu
r
s
or
s
Lymphoblasts
or
igi
n
ate i
n
the b
on
ema
rro
w the
n
they m
o
ve t
o
i
n
vade the epithelium
of the thymus which is derived from the endoderm
(emb
r
y
o
 i
n
te
rn
al laye
r
). They thymus is c
o
ve
r
ed by a capsule c
o
mp
o
sed
of 
c
onn
ective tissue, this capsule pe
n
et
r
ated thepa
r
e
n
chyma
of 
the thymus dividi
n
g it i
n
t
o
i
n
c
o
mplete l
o
bules, these exte
n
si
on
s that a
r
e l
o
we
r
ed
fro
m the capsulea
r
e called t
r
abeculae (si
n
gula
r
: t
r
abicula).
 
 Each l
o
bule is c
o
mp
o
sed
of 
 
a Cortex and a medulla,
because the l
o
bules a
r
e i
n
c
o
mplete the c
or
texes a
n
dmedullas a
r
e c
on
ti
n
u
o
us th
ro
ugh
o
ut the l
o
bules.
A
-
 
The c
or
tex c
on
tai
n
s cells such as the Thym
o
cytes (T-lymph
o
cytes), mac
ro
phages, epithelial
r
eticula
r
 cells (the
on
ly type
of 
 
r
eticula
r
cell de
r
ived
fro
m the e
n
d
o
de
r
m)... The c
or
texs capilla
r
ies a
n
da
r
te
r
i
o
les a
r
e su
rro
u
n
ded by epithelial
r
eticula
r
cells, which a
r
e j
o
i
n
ed by
o
ccludi
n
g ju
n
cti
on
s, a
n
d thebaseme
n
t memb
r
a
n
es
of 
the a
r
te
r
i
o
les a
r
e thicke
r
 
for
mi
n
g what is called 
the blood thymus barrier
which p
r
eve
n
ts ci
r
culati
n
g a
n
tige
n
s
fro
m e
n
te
r
i
n
g the c
or
tex
of 
thymus the
r
e
for
e p
ro
tecti
n
g thematu
r
i
n
g lymph
o
cytes i
n
the c
or
tex.
 
B-
 
The medulla has less de
n
se lymphatic tissue which has the epithelial
r
eticula
r
a
n
d lymph
o
cytes. TheMedulla
of 
the thymus is cha
r
acte
r
ized by havi
n
g a u
n
ique cell st
r
uctu
r
e
fo
u
n
d i
n
it called
Hassle's corpuscle
these a
r
e *s
o
methi
n
g* a
rr
a
n
ged epithelial
r
eticula
r
cells that a
r
e
illed withke
r
ati
n
 
ilame
n
ts a
n
d might u
n
de
r
g
o
calci
icati
on
.I
n
a
n
Image
of 
thymus y
o
u ca
n
see the c
onn
ective tissue capsule,the t
r
abeculae which divides the thymus i
n
t
o
i
n
c
o
mplete l
o
bules, thesel
o
bules a
r
e c
o
mp
o
sed
of 
the c
or
tex (da
r
kly stai
n
ed), a
n
d y
o
u ca
n
als
o
see thece
n
t
r
al lightly stai
n
ed medulla.The
r
e a
r
e m
or
e lymph
o
cytes i
n
the c
or
tex the
n
the
r
e a
r
e i
n
themedulla. This he
r
e, the thymic c
or
puscle is cha
r
acte
r
izi
n
g the thymic medulla.Cells see
n
i
n
the thymic c
or
tex
of 
a ski
n
secti
on
a
r
e see
n
as
r
eticula
r
epithelial cells als
o
ca
n
see lymph
o
cytes a
n
d
o
the
r
 cells. Epithelial
r
eticula
r
cells a
r
e j
o
i
n
ed by the desm
o
s
o
mes.Y
o
u ca
n
see i
n
the image
of 
the thymic mudella, the
r
e is less de
n
se lymphatic tissue havi
n
g lymph
o
cytes a
n
d
o
the
r
 cells. Y
o
u ca
n
als
o
see the cha
r
acte
r
izi
n
g
Hassall corpuscle cells
which a
r
e
illed with ke
r
ati
n
a
n
d may u
n
de
r
g
o
calci
icati
on
.
Micrograph of a thymic corpuscle. H&Estain.
 

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