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Modeling and Simulation of Active Plasmonics with the FDTD method by using Solid State and Lorentz-Drude Dispersive Model

Modeling and Simulation of Active Plasmonics with the FDTD method by using Solid State and Lorentz-Drude Dispersive Model

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Published by Oka Kurniawan
An approach for the simulation of active plasmonics devices is presented in this paper. In the
proposed approach, a multi-level multi-electron quantum model is applied to the solid state part
of a structure, where the electron dynamics are governed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, state
filling and dynamical Fermi-Dirac thermalization, while for the metallic part Lorentz-Drude
dispersive model is incorporated into Maxwell’s equations. The finite difference time domain
(FDTD) method is applied to the resulting equations. For numerical results the developed
methodology is applied to a metal - semiconductor – metal (MSM) plasmonic waveguide and a
microcavity resonator.
An approach for the simulation of active plasmonics devices is presented in this paper. In the
proposed approach, a multi-level multi-electron quantum model is applied to the solid state part
of a structure, where the electron dynamics are governed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, state
filling and dynamical Fermi-Dirac thermalization, while for the metallic part Lorentz-Drude
dispersive model is incorporated into Maxwell’s equations. The finite difference time domain
(FDTD) method is applied to the resulting equations. For numerical results the developed
methodology is applied to a metal - semiconductor – metal (MSM) plasmonic waveguide and a
microcavity resonator.

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Published by: Oka Kurniawan on Dec 08, 2010
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03/28/2014

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Modeling and Simulation of Active Plasmonics with theFDTD method by using Solid State and Lorentz-DrudeDispersive Model
Iftikhar Ahmed, Eng Huat Khoo, Oka Kurniawan, Er Ping Li
Advanced Photonics and Plasmonics DivisionDepartment of Computational Electronics and PhotonicsInstitute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632An approach for the simulation of active plasmonics devices is presented in this paper. In theproposed approach, a multi-level multi-electron quantum model is applied to the solid state partof a structure, where the electron dynamics are governed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, statefilling and dynamical Fermi-Dirac thermalization, while for the metallic part Lorentz-Drudedispersive model is incorporated into
Maxwell’s equations
. The finite difference time domain(FDTD) method is applied to the resulting equations. For numerical results the developedmethodology is applied to a metal - semiconductor
 – 
metal (MSM) plasmonic waveguide and amicrocavity resonator. © 2010 Optical Society of America
OCIS codes:
(50.1755) Computational electromagnetic methods; (250.5403) Plasmonics;(160.6000) Semiconductor materials
 
1. Introduction
Until a few years ago, the miniaturization of photonics devices was a challenge due to thediffraction limit, which restricted minimum size of a component equivalent to
2
 
. However,recently, a new emerging area called plasmonics made it possible to go below the diffractionlimit. In plasmonics, the wave propagates at the interface of a metal and dielectric and remainsbounded. This characteristic allows the miniaturization of photonics devices below the diffractionlimit. A number of plasmonic structures, which can guide and manipulate electromagneticsignals, have been presented in literature [1-2]. Some of the promising plasmonic structures aresurface nano-antennas, lenses, resonators, sensors, and waveguides [1-4]. Most of the work in thisarea has been done on passive plasmonics [1-3] and active plasmonics is getting much attentionowing to freedom of light wave manipulation [4-7]. At the same time, complementary metal
 – 
oxide
 – 
semiconductor (CMOS) technology is also reaching its limits due to size and RC timedelay. It is difficult to abandon the CMOS technology due its numerous applications, cheapprocess and mature fabrications technologies; however, the limitations can be overcome byinterfacing plasmonics with electronics. The active plasmonics is believed to be a perfectcandidate for this purpose, because the interface between both technologies (similarsemiconductor materials) is easier to realize than in passive plasmonics.In our paper, we incorporate the multi-level multi-electron quantum system approach into
Maxwell’s equations
for the simulation of the solid state part of a plasmonic structure. Theelectron dynamics in the solid state is managed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, state filling anddynamical Fermi-Dirac thermalization, and the approach is also applicable to the modeling of molecular or atomic media [8].The solid state approach has been presented for the simulation of active photonics devices such as lasers and optical switches [9-11].For the simulation of themetallic part of a plasmonic structure, we incorporate a Lorentz-Drude (LD) model[12-13]into
Maxwell’s equations.
The LD model deals with free electrons (intra-band effects) and bounded
 
electrons (inter-band effects) in metals. In this paper, both a multi-level multi-electron quantumsystem and a LD approach are incorporated into Maxw
ell’s equations
, and the resulting equationsare used to simulate active plasmonics devices. For numerical analysis the FDTD method isapplied to the resulting equations. The FDTD method has the potential to model such complexdynamical media and their physics.A review of some advances in numerical techniques tocouple carrier dynamics with full wave dynamics is presented in [14], for this purpose stochasticensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) approach is applied to simulate carrier transport, while FDTDmethod is applied to simulate Maxwell equations. Recently, we have presented an approachwhich has concept similar to that presented in [14] to simulate nano-devices [15], where coupledSchrodinger and Maxwell equations are used to simulate coupled carrier and full wave dynamics.The proposed method has two main advantages compared to the methods presented in [14-15].First advantage is that the proposed method can model intra-band and inter-band electrontransitions, i.e. transition from one energy level to other, transition from valance band toconduction band and vice versa, while [14-15] cannot model this. The second advantage is thatthe proposed methods can deal with stimulated emission. Due to these reasons the proposedmethod is more promising and realistic comparatively. To our knowledge, this is the first timedomain approach which uses a realistic solid state model and LD dispersive model for thesimulation of active plasmonics devices. In subsequent sections, we illustrate the numerical methodology, numerical results and draw conclusions.
2. Numerical Methodology
In electro-optical systems, electrons and photons are two important components. Photonabsorption causes a transition of the electron from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. Inthe inverse process, when an electron moves from the conduction band to the valance band it

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