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Apollo Experience Report Command and Service Module Environmental Control System

Apollo Experience Report Command and Service Module Environmental Control System

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Published by Bob Andrepont
NASA Apollo Experience Report on the design of the Apollo environmental control system.
NASA Apollo Experience Report on the design of the Apollo environmental control system.

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jan 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/16/2011

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APOLLOEXPERIENCE REPORT
-
COMMAND AND SERVICEMODULEENVIRONMENTALCONTROL SYSTEM
by
Frunk
H.
Sumonski,
Jr.,
und
Elton
M.
Tzccker
Manned
Spucecrd
t
CenterHouston, Texas
77058
I.
.,
..
r
.I
I
,
./
.
NATIONAL
AERONAUTICS
AND
SPACE
ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON,
D.
c.
MARCH
1972
 
.
TECH
LIBRARY
KAFB,
NM
APOLLO EXPERIENCEEPORT
March
1972
COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULENVIRONMENTAL
6.
Performing Organization Code
CONTROL SYSTEMFrank
H.
Samonski,
Jr.,
andlton
M.
Tucker, MSC
1
MSC
S-279
7.
Authcds)
-~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~
.~
8.
Performing Organization
Report
No.
"_
."
.
_~"
~
10.
Work Unit No.
9.
Performing Organization Name and Address
914-11-10-00-72
Manned Spacecraft CenterHouston, Texas
77058
I
11.
Contract or Grant No.
I
13.
Type of
Report
and Period CoveredAgencyNameandAddress
Technical NoteNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington,
D.
C.
20546
I
14.
SponsoringAgency
Code
I
~-~
5.
SupplementaryNotes
~~
The
MSC
Director waived the use of the International System of Units
(SI)
forthis Apollo Experience Report, because,
in
his judgment, use
of
SI
Units would impair the usefulnessof the report
or
result
in
excessive cost.
~~
-.
.
-
"
~~~~~
16.
Abstract
.~
-
~~~
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the design philosophy of
the
Apollo environ-mental control system, and the development history of the total system and of selected com-ponents within the system. In particular, discussions are presented relative to thedevelopment history and to the problems associated with the equip.ment cooling coldplates,the evaporator and
its
electronic control system, and the space radiator system used forrejection of the spacecraft thermal loads. Apollo flight experience and operational diffi-culties associatedwith the spacecraft water system andhe waste management system
are
discussed in detail to provide definition of the problem and the corrective action taken henapplicable.
I
~
~ ~~
..
______.
_"
~~~ ~~ ~
.
17.
Key Words Suggested bythorkl
i
18:
Distribution Statement
~ ~~
-
Space Radiator *Waste Management
'
Evaporator
-
Environmental Control
*
Liquid/Gas Separator
*
Atmosphere Selectionkne
." .-
."
-
-~
~
. .
.
.
.
.
""
~..
~
~__~
19.
Security Classif. (of
this
report)
20.
Security Classif. (of
this
page)
T
None
21.
NO.
of pages
22.
Rice*
29
$3
00
~~~~~
-
"
For sale
by
the National Technical Information ervice, Springfield, Virginia
22151
 
A POLL0 EXPER IENCE REPORTCOMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE ENVIRONMENTALCONTROL SYSTEM
By
Frank
H.
Samonski, Jr., and Elton
M.
TuckerManned Spacecraft CenterSUMMARY
The Apollo environmental control system
was
designed and qualified to supportthree crewmen
for
14
days and to maintain electronic equipment within operating ther-mal boundaries. The system maintains the pressure atmosphere of
100
percent oxygenand removes trace contaminants and metabolic carbon dioxidey absorption in charcoaland lithium hydroxide beds. Temperature control
is
provided by heat rejection fromradiators and
a
water
evaporator. Oxygen
is
supplied by the cryogenic storage system,and
water
is
supplied
as
a
byproduct of the fuel cells. The knowledge gained from ex-tensive ground testing and inflight experimentson the behavior of water in zero gravityled to the incorporation
of
a
wick-type porous-plate condensate separator.The
two
hardware items requiring the most extensive development were the
water
evaporator and the radiator. During the Apollo Program, continuous refinements havebeen required in the construction, material selection, and quality control of the evap-orator and
its
control system. The wide range of the maximum and minimum heat loadsled to the use
of
a
selective stagnation radiator designed to employ the viscosity char-acteristics of the coolant fluid (ethylene glycol and water). The other major problemsexperienced were in materials selection o reduce corrosion (particularly in the coolantsystem), materials selection for fabrication
of
porous plates and heat exchangers, andmaterial and process refinements to eliminate weld crazing.
I
NTRODUCTI
ON
During an Apollo mission, the environmental control system
(ECS)
of the com-mand and service module
(CSM)
provides life support for the flight crew and thermalcontrol for the vehicle electronics systems. During the major portion of the mission,the
CSM
serves
as
the living quarters for
all
three crewmen. The components
of
the
ECS
are
located in both the command module
(CM)
and the service module
(SM).
This report presents
a
discussion
of
the functional and physical
ECS
design
re-
quirements based on the integration
of
the
ECS
with the
CSM
and the mission param-eters.
A
description of systems operations and of some significant problemsencountered during development and flight testing
f
the hardware
is
also included.

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