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Ryukyus

Ryukyus

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Published by Bob Andrepont
United States Army History of the Ryukus campaign.
United States Army History of the Ryukus campaign.

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Feb 08, 2011
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08/02/2013

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Introduction
World War II was the largest and most violent armed conflict inthe history of mankind. However, the half century that now separatesus from that conflict has exacted its toll on our collective knowledge.While World War II continues to absorb the interest of military schol-ars and historians, as well as its veterans, a generation of Americanshas grown to maturity largely unaware of the political, social, and mil-itary implications of a war that, more than any other, united us as a people with a common purpose.Highly relevant today, World War II has much to teach us, notonly about the profession of arms, but also about military prepared-ness, global strategy, and combined operations in the coalition war against fascism. During the next several years, the U.S. Army will participate in the nation’s 50th anniversary commemoration of World War II. The commemoration will include the publication of variousmaterials to help educate Americans about that war. The works pro-duced will provide great opportunities to learn about and renew pride in an Army that fought so magnificently in what has beencalled “the mighty endeavor.World War II was waged on land, on sea, and in the air over severaldiverse theaters of operation for approximately six years. The followingessay is one of a series of campaign studies highlighting those strugglesthat, with their accompanying suggestions for further reading, aredesigned to introduce you to one of the Army’s significant military featsfrom that war.This brochure was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of MilitaryHistory by Arnold G. Fisch, Jr.I hope this absorbing account of that period will enhance your appreciation of American achievements dur-ing World War II.GORDON R. SULLIVANGeneral, United States ArmyChief of Staff 
 
3
Ryukyus
26 March–2 July 1945
In late September 1944 the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) inWashington decided to invade Okinawa, the largest island in theRyukyu Islands, as part of a strategy to defeat Japan. The effort wascode-named Operation I
CEBERG
. Okinawa had initially emerged as anobjective in the spring of 1943, when the Allies believed that an inva-sion of the home islands might be necessary to force Tokyo’s surren-der. Possession of Okinawa would give the American forces addition-al, better-positioned air bases for intensifying the air campaign againstthe home islands and also provide important anchorages and stagingareas for the huge, ambitious effort needed to invade Japan.Beginning in late September 1944 American aircraft and sub-marines began to tighten a noose around the Ryukyus, making sur-face shipping extremely hazardous for the Japanese. Heavy bombersof the Fourteenth and Twentieth Air Forces and carrier planes fromAdmiral William F. Halsey’s Third Fleet struck repeatedly atJapanese positions in the Philippines, Taiwan, and the RyukyuIslands. On 29 September B–29 bombers conducted the initial recon-naissance mission over Okinawa and its outlying islands. On 10October nearly two hundred of Admiral Halsey’s planes struck Naha,Okinawa’s capital and principal city, in five separate waves. The citywas almost totally devastated. The American war against Japan wascoming inexorably closer to the Japanese homeland.
Strategic Setting 
 Neither the outbreak of hostilities in China during the 1930s nor the ensuing war in the Pacific initially had much impact on the inhabi-tants of the Ryukyu Islands, a chain running southwest from theJapanese home island of Kyushu toward Taiwan. Despite its size, of approximately 480 square miles and its population of perhaps500,000, Okinawa had neither surplus food nor a great deal of industryto assist the Japanese effort. Its harbor facilities were unsuitable for large warships. The island’s main contribution to the war effort lay inthe production of sugarcane, which could be converted into commer-cial alcohol for torpedoes and engines.Okinawa is sixty miles long and from two to sixteen miles wide. Itstopography and irregular terrain facilitated the defensive. The northern

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