Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


Ratings: (0)|Views: 24 |Likes:
Published by Donna Marie

More info:

Published by: Donna Marie on Feb 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) originated in the 1970¶s primarily as aresponse to the grammar based and audio-lingual teaching and learning methodologies of language.This essentially involves the learners¶ active participation in communicating in thelanguage that they are trying to learn, by requiring them to respond to various simulatedsituations in the classroom. Active participation would consequently help to prepare the studentsfor real life interaction. According to Yalden (1987:61), the use of CLT includes perceiving thestudents as µ
communicators, naturally endowed with the ability to learn languages
.¶ (Chung) Itemphasizes on the interaction that takes place through activities such as interviews, role playingand group works that are designed to enable the students to communicate with one another.Indoing so this allows them to µdiscover¶ grammar rules and sentence structure. (Nikki)The ease of the acquisition of grammar rules and principles can be, somewhat, derived from the grammar rules and principles of one¶s native language. As far as EFL is concerned, CLT may prove to bea useful teaching strategy providing students with high levels of motivation and the patiencerequired when learning a foreign language. Additionally, using one¶s native language during theteaching process would also add to increase their understanding and to keep themstimulated.This statement can be drawn from the facts and information based on various researchstudies presented below.However, just as with any other teaching strategy, the use of CLT may involve certain practical barriers. Taking these barriers into consideration is important assessing its practicaleffectiveness in learning English as a foreign language. One of such factors may include thestudent¶s personal attitude and perception of the target language and the learning processinvolved. For example, based on the work of Anderson (1993) in teaching English Language, it
was believed that the learner¶s µ
 skeptical attitudes towards the use of communicative activitiesas learning tools is one of the obstacles in implementing CLT¶ 
. (Anderson) Likewise, whileteaching English in Pakistan, Shamin (1996) acknowledges the student¶s defiance as a crucial barrier in acquainting them with CLT. (Handbook of research in second language teaching andlearning)Another important factor, highlighted by Li (1998) while teaching secondary schoolstudents English in South Korea was their unwillingness to get involved in class activities whichwas identified as a crucial hurdle to his attempts of introducing CLT to the class. (Issues inEnglish Language Education at Korean Elementary Schools) As can be seen, the studentsinvolved and their perceptions play an important role in their success in learning English as aforeign language which in turn influences the effectiveness and practicality of CLT.Rao (2002) concentrated on the feedback of Chinese students who were learning Englishas a foreign language regarding their assessment and opinions of the activities that took place intheir classroom; he discovered that they preferred a combination of both communicative andnon-communicative activities. (Rao)The work of Savignon and Wang (2003) similarly focused on first year universitystudents who were learning English as a foreign language and studied their high schoolexperiences and their overall perspective with regard to learning English. The study showed thatthere was a disparity regarding student preferences and needs and their account of the nature of the directions that they were given. (Wang) However, a major fallback of this study is importantto note at this point, which is that heavily relying on memories of accounts of events can bemisleading as the data obtained can be inaccurate (Bryman, 2001). Despite these shortcomings, ithas been founded by various studies that differences between student and teacher viewpoints are
likely to cause µdissatisfaction, anxiety and tension between students and teachers¶. (Cotterall,1995; Kern, 1995; Berat&Gvozenko, 2005) (Cotterall)It can thus be concluded that apart from the student¶s perceptions regarding the teachingmethod employed, their individual learning styles can equally affect the usefulness of CLT inacquiring their proficiency in the target language and acts as an additional factor of importance.For example, some individuals are able to learn better through visual aids, while others aredrawn to tactile or physical learning techniques. According to Kuntz (1996) µknowledge of student beliefs makes it possible for teachers to create a mode of instruction in which students¶needs and goals are satisfied¶. (Kuntz)In addition to this, another important factor in the acquisition of a second language is theanxiety levels of the student involved. This is because, according to Stephen Krashen,individuals usually have an µaffective filter¶ which can act as a psychological hindrance toeffective learning. When a learner experiences high levels of anxiety or conversely experienceslow levels of motivation, his µaffective filter goes up¶ and he is consequently unable to processnew information and fails to be receptive towards new ideas.(Acquisition)Apart from this, on amore objective note, other variables that may affect second language acquisition include theextent to which the native language is as similar or dissimilar to the target language, and thesentence structure or language rules that exist between the native language and the targetlanguage. On an individual basis, ³their aptitude for learning languages, cognitive style ,motivation, attitude, previous knowledge, learning style, learning strategies and personalvariables such as anxiety have variously been thought to influence second language acquisition´(Baker, 2003, p. 121). (thesis)

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->