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Africa to the Alps the Army Air Forces in the Mediterranean Theater

Africa to the Alps the Army Air Forces in the Mediterranean Theater

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Feb 27, 2011
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12/29/2013

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The U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II
Africato the Alps
The Army Air Forcesin the Mediterranean Theater
Edward T. Russell and Robert M. Johnson
A I R  F O R C E  H I S T O RY  A N D  M U S E U M S  P R O G R A M
1999
 
Africa to the Alps
The Army Air Forces in the Mediterranean Theater
By the time the United States declared war on Germany and Italy onDecember 11, 1941, most of Europe had fallen under the dominationof Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany’s Third Reich. In the west, onlyGreat Britain, her armies expelled from the European continent, re-mained defiant; in the east, Hitler faced an implacable foethe Sovi-et Union.While the Soviets tried to stave off a relentless German at-tack that had reached Moscow, Britain and her Commonwealth alliesfought a series of crucial battles with Axis forces in North Africa.Initially, America’s entry into the war changed nothing. The Unit-ed States continued to supply the Allies with the tools of war, as ithad since the passage of the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941. U.S.military forces, however, had to be expanded, trained, equipped, anddeployed, all of which would take time.With the United States in the war, the Allies faced the question of where American forces could best be used. President Franklin D.Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston S. Churchill had al-ready agreed that defeating first Germany and then Japan would betheir policy, but that decision raised further questions.Roosevelt wanted U.S. troops in combat against German troops assoon as possible. Josef Stalin, the Soviet leader, demanded a secondfront in northern Europe to relieve pressure on his armed forces.Churchill, fearing German power in France, hoped for a strike at theMediterranean periphery of Hitler’s conquestswhat he called the“soft underbelly” of Europe.Churchill proposed an invasion of northwest Africa for late 1942and Roosevelt agreed. As a result, American forces were soon ontheir way across the Atlantic, beginning a Mediterranean journey thatwould involve them in nearly three long years of combat.
Africa to the Alps
describes the participation of the Army AirForces in the war in the Mediterranean theater of operations, as it de-veloped a practical air-ground doctrine, established an effective inter-diction strategy, and gained valuable experience in airborne opera-tions and close air support of ground troops.
 
America Comes to the Desert
As U.S. and British leaders gathered in Washington after Pearl Harborfor their first wartime conference (Arcadia), British land, sea, and airforces were fighting against Axis forces in a desperate struggle for controlof the Mediterranean. The Allies considered this area crucial to their inter-ests because it affected supply lines to the Soviet Union, aircraft ferryingroutes to India and China, and oil fields in Iran and Iraq. The prospect of triumphant German and Japanese armies joining forces in India remaineda recurrent Allied nightmare.An operation by the British Eighth Army in late 1941 that featuredbold thrusts by armored spearheads drove the Germans and their Italianallies westward from the border of Egypt. But Gen. Erwin Rommel andhis Afrika Korps soon resumed the offensive. What began as a limitedGerman thrust in January 1942 against El Agheila, Libya, grew by Mayinto a major attack. Bolstered by increased supplies, the Afrika Korps bat-tled through British defensive positions at Gazala and captured Tobruk onJune 21. Retreating across the western desert to hastily prepared defensesat El Alamein, sixty miles west of Alexandria, the British averted com-plete disaster only by determined rearguard fighting and domination of the skies.As the Germans opened their May assault, Sir Charles Portal, chief of air staff for Britain, met in London with Gen. Henry H. Arnold, head of the Army Air Forces (AAF), to determine how to bring U.S. bombers andfighters to the Middle East. In fact, the first U.S. heavy bombers had al-ready arrived. During a stopover along the African leg of a newly estab-lished ferrying route to India, twenty-three B–24s commanded by Col.Harry Halverson diverted from their Asian journey and proceeded toEgypt. There they prepared for a strike against Ploesti, a Romanian petro-leum complex vital to the German war machine. Over the next threeyears, that target became legendary to the thousands of airmen who flewagainst it. On the evening of June 11, 1942, thirteen of Halverson’s smallforce of B–24s took off from a Royal Air Force (RAF) airfield near theSuez Canal, arriving the next morning over the target where they bombedthe refineries as planned. The raid marked the first AAF combat missionover Europe. From this modest start, the American presence in theMediterranean theater grew into an overwhelming force.Halverson’s B–24s stayed and supported the U.S. Eighth Army in thedesert war against Rommel. For the next several weeks, they joined theRAF in targeting German supplies, attacking convoys at sea, and repeat-edly striking the harbors at Benghazi and Tobruk. In Cairo, meanwhile,the structure of the AAF in the Middle East took shape. On June 28, theU.S. Army Middle East Air Force (USAMEAF) activated under the com-mand of Maj. Gen. Lewis Brereton. With nine B–17s from the Tenth AirForce in India, he was a recent arrival. The Halverson and Brereton heavy1

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