Unit 1 ± Cognitive Revision
Cognitive Psychologists are concerned with internal operations in the mind. These are collectively called cognitiveprocesses (or cognition). This includes perception, memory and thinking.
The Levels of Processing Approach (LoP)
Craik and Lockhart (1972) wanted to explain how memory operates. They said how well something isremembered is due to its processes.Craik (1973) defined depth of processing as the amount of meaning that was extracted from the information.Information that is deeply processed is likely to be remembered. Craik and Lockhart (1972) suggested threelevels of how well information is processed:Structural Processing What things look likePhonetic Processing What something sounds likeSemantic Processing The meaning of the wordSemantic processing is the deepest form and is most likely to be remembered. Craik and Tulving tested thistheory in 1975.
AimTo see whether words processed semantically would be better rememberedProcedure20 students were given a reading list of 10 1 -2 syllable words. Asked whether it wasin capitals, rhymed with another or whether it fitted into the sentence. Questionsand words were rotated for a different combination ± counterbalancing. Later participants were tested on recall from a list.ResultsWords remembered best when processed semantically. 96% semanticallyprocessed recalled from a list whereas only 18% of structurally processed wordswere recalledConclusionDepth of processing affects how well words are recalled ± semantic processing isbestThere is support from Nyberg (2002). He examined brain -scanning studies looking at information processing andmemory. Found activity in frontal and temporal lobes is greater when semantically proces sed.Priming The involuntary recall of words where words are linked through meaning. Ramponiet al(2004) did a study on this: Investigated the extent of deep processing and ageinfluences how well words are recalled under voluntary and involuntary conditio ns.48 adults and 48 students. Participants encountered priming words. Semanticallyprocessed words were best recalled and young people were better at recall. Theassociation of words was strong and involuntary. They concluded: words can beinvoluntary recalled regardless of process at the time.
For and Against Levels of Processing
Experimental support ± Craik and Tulving 1975. Thisshowed semantic words best recalledIt has proved extremely helpful in helping usunderstand memory although the model in its classicform has limitationsSupport from brain scanning studies like Nyberg(2002). Material processed semantically showed moreactivityLoP helps students with revision. Those who revisesemantically learn better than those who just readOther factors play a part e.g. Reber et al (2004)especially words of emotional significance. Thus LoP isnot a complete explanation to how memory worksPriming (Ramponi et al (2004)). Strong involuntaryassociations can cause recall of words