for a typical value that can be used in the calculations. Transformer short circuit MVA is calcu-lated from kVA and %Z:
SC MVA = kVA x 10
, where Zp.u.
is equal to %Z / 100
Data needed for cables is resistance, reactance and length. This data is available in cable standards andmanufacturer’s specifications.
shows values for resistance and reactance per hundred feet for most commonly used cable types. Lengths may be measured, paced off and estimated. The cable Short CircuitMVA is determined from the equation below:
SC MVA = n x kV
- number of cables in parallel,
Z = (R
Motors and Generators
Motors are a source of short-circuit current. They will act like generators when a short-circuit occurs. At a mini-mum, motors must be specified by horsepower which will be listed on the motor nameplate. Motor specifications areas follows:
: Motor rated kV.
: Motor Horse Power. Motors may be represented individually or as a lumped group.
: The Full Load Amps.
: Motor operating Power Factor. This is used with the Efficiency to determine kVA. Motor groups should use anaverage value of power factor.
: Motor operating Efficiency. This is used with the Power Factor field to determine kVA. Motor groups shoulduse an average value of efficiency.
: The motor or motor group kVA rating per horsepower. This is a simple way of defining the kVA when fullload amperes, or efficiency and power factor are not known. Typical values for standard efficiency motors are listedbelow:1.0 kVA/HP - Induction < 100 HP and 0.8 PF Syn Motors0.95 kVA/HP - Induction 100 < 999 HP0.90 kVA/HP - Induction > 1000 HP0.8 kVA/HP - Synchronous 1.0 PF
: Subtransient reactance in percent on the motor HP base. See Table
A Appendix C for
for a typical valuethat can be used in the calculations if accurate subtransient reactance cannot be obtained
B Appendix C
displays ANSI Standard interrupting duty multipliers. Code numbers are chosen accordingto the motor types, sizes and modeling method. Using the ANSI Code is the recommended method to determinemotor impedance Zp.u. used for short circuit calculations:
= ( X”dv )( ANSI multiplier )
There are three ways to calculate motor kVA. Below the kVA calculation methods are shown in priority order:1) If the FLA is known, the motor kVA should be determined by the following equation:
KVA = (1.73)(FLA)(kV)