The learning objective of the chapter is to learn Maritime English and understand basic terminologyrelating to:
Types of ships
Organization onboard ships
Ship design and terminology
The classification of merchant ships on the basis of the type and methods of carrying cargo is as follows:
Bulk Carriers are ships specially designed to carry homogenous unpacked cargo inbulk. Cargo such as coal, iron ore, grain, light minerals and other dry products is carried, in bulk, inlarge cargo holds. Bulk Carriers are commonly categorized by their size. Ships of 25,000 deadweighttons (DWT) are called "Handysize", about 75,000 DWT are called "Panamax", and those over200,000 DWT are called "Capesize".
Tankers carry liquids such as crude oil, petroleum products, various oils and liquidchemicals in bulk. This type of cargo is loaded in specialized tanks. A network of pipelines andpumps is provided to load and discharge the cargo. Depending on the type of cargo, tankers arefurther classified, for example: Crude oil tanker, Product tanker, Gas tanker and Chemical tanker.
Crude Oil Tankers:
Crude Oil Tankers are ships that carry crude oil and other dirty liquid cargoes.The cargo is carried in large covered tanks. The capacity of these ships can vary from a fewthousand tonnes to almost half a million tonnes. Large Crude Oil Tankers are often referred to asVLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) and ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier).
: Liquid cargoes such as gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, aviation fuel or similar cleanpetrochemical products are carried on Product Tankers. They also carry cooking oils such as tallow,vegetable, palm and corn oil. Compared to Product Tankers these ships are smaller and they usuallyhave a larger number of tanks to segregate the different types of cargoes.
Gas Tankers are ships that carry liquefied gases. Some of the most common gases arepropane, butane, ammonia and methane. These gases are kept in a liquid state in speciallydesigned tanks maintained at very high pressure or very low temperature, or a combination of both. There are broadly two types of Gas Tankers depending on the type of cargoes they carry:LPG Tankers carry Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) such as butane, propane or similar gases. Theyare designed to carry their cargo in pressurized and refrigerated states.LNG Tankers are specially designed to carry Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane) attemperatures of -160 degrees Celsius and below.
Chemical Tankers are ships that carry different liquid chemicals in specially builttanks. These tanks are mainly made of stainless steel and specially coated to withstand chemicalreactions and corrosion from diverse cargoes such as acids, alcohol, edible oils and petrochemicalproducts. They are smaller ships designed to carry small quantities of different types of cargo at thesame time in various compartments.
Container Ships are ships designed to carry standard sized containers. Containersare stacked in the ship's holds as well as on the deck and secured to the ship using a lockingmechanism. Two of the most common standard sizes of containers are the Twenty Foot (TEU) andForty Foot (FEU) units. The capacity of a Container Ship is usually expressed by the number of Twenty Foot Equivalent Units (TEU) that can be carried by the ship.