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Alternative Network Letter Vol 5 No.3-Sep 1989-EQUATIONS

Alternative Network Letter Vol 5 No.3-Sep 1989-EQUATIONS

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12|Likes:
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12
We invite Network
members
to contribute to
the
Network Letter
NETWONK
sharing their work,
i d e , L ~ 
dlUI
plans through these
NEWS
Communication
is
vital to the life
of
a
/ \ i e t . . , n r l ~ 
NOUNDUP
physical distances cannot easily
be
bridged 
ISTRAD,
Ludnow.
India
EQUATIONS,
Bafl'Qalo'l'e
ISTRAD,
the
Indidn
Society
for
loumm
Research
&
In
late
we
hosted
2
meetings.
Thefirst,
in
collaboration with
of
the Centre
for
lourism
Re5earch.
tounded
by
Tej
Vir
and
PENFRIEND,
a
collective of
young
journalists,
was
an
attempt
to
understand
ISTkAD
has
a
small
resource
centre.
does'
research.
andthe
role
of
media,
especially
responsible media,
in
the context
of
Indian tourismseminars on
variullo
aspects
01
tourism.
i ~
open
to
scholars
dnd
issues.
About
15
persons
participated,
representing
a wide
range
of print
media
others
internationally.
ISTRADproposes
a
seminarin 1990,on
Third
World
Karnataka.Tourism (Strategies
for Sustainable
Development),
and
would appreciate
As
a
to
our
1988
study
on
the
impact of tourism
on
coastal
south
enquiries
from
potential participants. Write
to Ms.
Shalini
Singh,
ISTRAD.
wemet
with
members
of
the
National
Fishermen's Forum,
a
trade
union
A-965/6 Indiranagar, Lucknow
-
226
016.
of
traditional fisherfolk.
Both
meetings
resulted
in
forfuture action,
andreports
wi
II
soon
be Clvailahle
from
us.
J a ~ r u t 
GoenRaranchi
Fouz.
Goa
The
JGF
or Vigilant
Coans
Army,
which celebrated 2
years
of
its
existence
in
has
cal
It'd for a boycott of
the
Ramada
Hotel
in
Coa.
I:l
Octoher
1988,
RESOURCES
the
)GF
filed a writ petition'
in
the
Iligh
Court
against the
Ramada.
citing
The
View from the Countryside:
Some Basic
Notes about Perceptions
on
vioiations
of
and
construction
norms.
In
April
1989,
a
special
leave
Tourism of the Host Communities,
by
Thelma
Cataquis
et
ai, Centre
foi
petition
was
in
the
Supreme
Court.
the
court-appointed
c ~ I ; , . j · " ; . , , 
Tourism,
Rm.
103,
L.
J.
Henson Bldg.,
494Soldado
Street,
Ermita,
presented
a
negative report
on
the
Ramada,
hoth
thecourts
ru
led
favour
of
the
hotel.
The
JGF
has
asked
for wide
to the
details of
the
case,
andtor letters
ofprotest
to
the Goan
and
Union
governments.
endeavours to
delineate
the
different
of the affected
local
::.ay
that
pressure must
be
built
to prevent
accreditation
of
the Goa
Ramada by
pOPUlation on
the
impact of tourism
(In
Puerto
a Filipino town.
BasedRamada
InternJtional. Write
to
Proi.
Sergio
Carvalho,
2
Liberty
Apts.,
Feira
Alta,
survey,
it
affirms previously maintained positions
on
the
impacts
Mapusa, Goa
-
403
507,
India.
l I ' e \ i ~ U 
lalleo
tourist traffic,
and
documents
and
negative
effects on
population.
The
significance
of
the lies in
its
of
small
communities
to
carrv
out their
own to
determineillterveni
ng in
a situation of
~ o n s e q u e n c e 
to
them.
The
Cook Islands
Tourist Industry: Ownership
and
Planning,
by
Simon
Milne,
in
PaC/i?e
Viewpolilt,
28 (2),
119-138,
1987.
This
studv
analysesthe effectiveness
of
the
stated
objective
of
maximising
forthe
local
community
in
income
and
employment
generation
tourism
in the Pacific Cook
Islands. It discusses
thepatterns
ofowner-
and
accumulation,
and
observes
that
present
tourism
trends
have
to
ach
ieve
the Government's
In
cond
usion,
the
study
suggests
that
apart
fromthe
purely economic
the
way
in which local
can
participate
in,
andreceive
benefits
tourism
needs
to
be
taken
consideration while planning
for
theThe
Responsive
Traveller's Handbook,
Centre
for
the
Advancement
of
R e ~ p o n s i v e 
Travel,
70,
Dry Hill
Park Road,
Tonbridge, KentTN10
3BX,
United
HELP
Asian
Women's
Shelter.
To1<yo.
JdPiln
Kingdom. 
at
the July
meeting
at Sri
Thailand.
Mizuho
Matsuda
of
HELP, 
The first
edition of
the
Responsive
Traveller's
H,lIldbook
dims
at
providing
better
suggested
that
at
theroots
of
the
entertainment industry
in JJpan
(whichlinks
between
growing
numbers
of
travellers,
tour
operators,
trawl
agents and
thousands
of
Asian
women)
are
factors
like
the
traditinn:.l
I"
host peoples
concerned
to
improve existing
styles
of
pleasure
and
business
Japanese
culture, tht' working
day,
and
the
f,;"h"",(;t
tourism.
Thefirst
part
introduces
and
offers
g u i d e l i n e ~ 
on
r ~ m ~ ~ , " , ; , , ~
natureofthe
ADart
from,
of
course,
the
rrd\!elll'ng.Thesecond
is
an
introduction
totheIdea
of alternativesunemployment conditions
the
countries
from
where
;J,h!prc;plv
affectthe
hosts
or
their environment.
The
finalmostly Thailand
and the The
HELP
Shelter
of
resDonsive
t"lYel
ODDortunities,
both
services
to
women
who
it,
including
assistance
withrehabilitation
dnd
repatridtion. Write
to
Mizuf:o
at
HELP.
Japan
Women\
Christian
Temperance
Union,
2-23-5
Hyakunin-cho,Shinjuku-ku,
169.
Tourism
and
Environment
in
Thailand: National
Parks
for
Sale,
Ecumenical
Coalition
on
Third
World
Touri<;m,
P
()
Box
24,
Chorakhebua
..
Bangkok
lO230,
Department
of
S o c i o l o ~ . 
GOd
UniversityThailandAlito
Siqueir.1,
d
lecturer
titthe
University. appro2ciwd
us
('c)rly
t h i ~ 
year
lurinformation
on
tourism, intt'nding
to
develop
part
of
an
MA
c o u r ~ e 
in
GOdn
A
compi
la!ion
of
clippings
ande<.iitorials
fromthe
& l / ~ ( { ! . ( } 1 . 
Post
and
!/If> Nrlt/0/7
culture
;1Ild
We
are
delighted
tohear
from
Alito
thatthe
University
on the
proposal
of
tlw
Tourism
Authority ofThailand
to open up
Thai
national
h,)';
J u ~ t 
approwd
course,
which will foclis
on
the
impacts
of tourism,
and
parks
for private
tourism
deve:opnwnt.
Economists,
environmentalists
and
legcll
the
current debdte
on
tourism
in
COd.
Lecturers
will
include'
those
who haw
experts argue
thilt
p r i v a t i ~ d l i o r l 
of national
pdrks
threatens
the
country's
last
bf'cn
Ifl
the
forefront
of
the struggle,
like
Sergio
Carvdlho
of
the
j(;F.
We
art'
irreplace,lble
genetic
r e ~ O L J r C e s 
ofplant
clnd
anirnell specips.
to
d
p e ~ ) t ) I ( ' , : , ' 
('oncern,
and
thenaturdl
Pflviroflillent
by
Piluk('t
P1,bli,hed by.
[qL.itlhlc
T ( ) i 1 r i ~ : T 1 
Option,
(EQUATIONS).
')(,.
II
C"lu!lY.
:,ld
I,
j),lf1i:di()(('
r;w
J
W.
INDIA.
D ~ s l g r l 
ilnd
P h ( ! l j ) r ) ' { l < , s t ' m l l ~ 
R,'vi'lidlity
DigltN'ci
[')1,,·,
..
,1111';
d
HI
Crc'i1hlC
D!"lgll.
I,IV"II,'
Ru,(d,
Bdng,ilo:('.
indl,1.
ALTERNATIVE
NETWORK
LETTER
A Third World Tourism Critique
For
Private Circulation
Only
Vol. 5
No.3
September
19H9
S
PEAKING
with a friendly waiter
at
a
beach-side restaurant
at
Kovalam
Kerala's
'premier'
resort
j
enquired whether
the'arrack'
Silent
Country
liauor)
some
tourists
wpre
being
served
was
distilled
from
the
coconut
By
Edouard
Bailby
what
we
tell
them,
actually
it's
made in the
village:
he 
F
OR decades,
Albania's three
have
lived
In
near
a chemical concoction, quite likely a
health
isolation
from the
rest
of
the
world.
Since
the
end
of World
WdrII,
the
This
to
me
wasyet
another
example
of
the
invariable victimisationcountry
has
severed
long-standi
ng
relations
with
its
three
main
ideotourism.
The
tourist gladly
pays
for
genuine
fakes
-
'hey,
that's 
logical
allies
-
Yugoslavia,
the
Soviet
Union
and
the
People's
Republic
-
and
is
hardly
expected
to
know that, for
exampie,
illegally
brewed
in that
order.
Enver
Hodxa
,
the
man
who
led
Albania into independence
in
arrack
has
beenthe
cause
of
hundreds
of
deaths
in
India.
The
host
community,
1945
and
remained
the
country's
top leader
until
his
death in
1985
ilt
age
77,
equally,
smilingly
accepts the small change
that
is
thrown
its way
by
itinerant
used
to
say,
"We'll
eat
grass
if
we
must but we'll
remain
independent:'
Infact,
visitors,
and
pays
eventually with irreparable
loss
of culture
and
identity.
All
theSocialist
People's
Republ
ie
of
Albania
has
willi
ngly renounced
the
assistanCl'
for
the
sake
of
an
immediate economic benefit, instant gratification.of
its
former
friends
in favor
of
the
Marxist-Leninist concept of a dictatorship
The
tourism
whirlpool
is
a
never-ending vicious
circle, expanding
its
contours
of
the
proletariat.all
the
while. trapping
e v e r - i n C i ' e a ~ i n g 
numbers
in
its wake.
As
visited Albania
for
the
first time
in
1971.
As
a reporter
for the
Paris-based
offer traditional hosoitalitv. Cultural
exchange
!
was
-
after
lengthy negotiations a
feat.
Only
half-a-dozen
Western
Short
Term
Highs
permit
from
the
I
irane
ar.\I·»rnmpnt
Seventeen
years
later,
on
French
magazine
Ceo,
I
again
set
foot
economic
advantages
are
touted
by
city-based
intellectuals
and
the
media. The
on
Albanian territory -
this
time holding
a
collective
visa
as
a
member
of a
governments
follow
suit,
offering
massive
incentives
to
the
travel and
hotel
small
group of
tourists.
For
an
entire
week
I
traveled
allover
the
country,
industry
-
the
taxpayer
ends
up
subsidising
thecoffers
of
some
distant
capitalist,from
north
to
south
on
a
bus
owned
by
the
state-run
tourist
agency,
since no
domestic or multinational.other
means of
transportation
was
available. Indeed,
it
issti
II
illegal
to
own
an
I
ndia
is
estimated
to
have
earned
Rs.
1890
crores
(depending
on
the source,
automobile
in
Albania,where
private
cars are seen
as
symbols of
the"selfishness
estimates
differ!) during
1988,
representing
more than
a third of
the
deficit
in
of capitalism:'
In
addition,
no
foreigner
is
allowed
to travel
alone
in thethe
current account
balance
of
payments. The focus
of national planning
ti
II
and
it
is
next
to
impossible
to arrange for
accommodations with
an
infrastructure
(or
industridl development
base.
The first
objective
has
been
reasorlablv
visit
the
country. All
he
or
she
has
to
have
trained
their
guns
on other
economic
sectors,
s p t : , c i , ) l i z i n ~ 
in
Albanian trips in
the small
French
an
Important
one.some tocover
room-and-board
and
of
the
National Commission
onTourism
submitteo
lastyear
is
must
one
be
a
member
of
some
militant
M a r x j ~ t 
current tourism policy.
Apart from
official
members,
every
other
totheTirane regime.
member
of
the
commission
represents the
growing luxury
hotel lobbies.
It
is
The
truth
is
that
Albania
is
slowly
and
timidly beginning
to
open up
to
the
hardly surprising
therefore
thelt
the
thrust
is
on
the
high-growth, high-profile,
rest
of
the
world.
In
1988,
the
country
received
over
12,000Western
tourists.
high-profit,
five-star
mass
tourism
market.
A
Tourism Finance
Corporation
has
None,
however,
from
E d ~ t e r n 
Europe.
"WedOl)'!expect
dllything
from
thCN:'
been
established
with
an
outlay of
Rs.
1000 crares,
its
funds
earmarked
for
loans
people,"
said
government
officials
we
occasiorldllv
met,
"Ileithcr
a s ~ i ~ t d n c e 
nor
to
private
sector
hotel
industry.
Tax
exemptions,
subsidised water and
electricity,
undcrstJnding
of
our
problems."
Despite
the recent
deterioration
of
relatiolls
assistance
with
land
acquisition,
softloansfrom
a
variety
of financial
and
as
a
result
of
problems
involving
tho
Albanian millority ill
government
agencies,
and
so
on,
have
all
been
announced in
the
government's
Kosovo,
a
small
of
AlbaniCln
touri:,ts
was
recently allowed to visit
soutlwrtl
d e ~ p e r d t e 
search
for
the
pot of gold
at
theend
of
the
tourism
rdinbow.
YUgOSldvl,l
to'
time
in
,ewrdl
yt'ar,>.
From
the
cultural
tourism
of
the
past,
which largely
consisted
of
ci(Jhkno;nn
Whoever
travel"
by bus
in
Albania,
as
most
tourists
.
shifts
to
recreational
'-,('C'
that
thi<;
"mall,W,OOO-square
kilometer
beaches,
daredevil
whit(Lvvater
the
COdst,
in
the
fields
on
the
outskirh
on
the
Himalavan
slopes.
Even
some
d o V l · ~ · ; " · I . · 
gates,
Ollf'
Cdn5('('
thOUC,clncb
of
['))('Il,lCing
in
the
rest
of
the
Such
plane;
~ h o w 
no
evidence
of
hindsight
or
longsight,instead
only
of
looking through
l e n s e ~ 
tinted with
greenbacks. Tourism
offici,lls
equivocate'
INSIDE
with
pldtitudinollsly
voiced
ecological
concerns,
offering little proof
that
their
Hope
for
Pattaya
4
includ<:'
strategies
for
environmental conservation.
It
is
heartening,
to
l10te
theincreasing
number
of
groups
raisingregarding
Post Card Cremation
8:
the
d
i
r('(tion
of
our tourism development.
Ti
me
it
I ~
to
cOllle
together
and
,let
Tourism Concern
11
u l 1 i ~ o n . 
Network, News Roundup
12
Paul
Gonsalves
 
wrought
in concrete or
earth.
Built
in the late
19605
following
the
Soviet
invilsionof Czechoslovakia,
these
round-shaped fortifications
have
room
for
nomorethan one
man and
his
rifle or machine
gun,
and
it
is
difficult to conceive how
they
might help offer
more than tokenresistance
to
a modern
army.
Yet
they
are
a reminder that
the
cult
oj
resbtance
to
foreign intruders
remains
deeplyingrained
in
the
Albanian
soul.Albania
has
sufTered
invasions
throughout
its
history.
crueiest
and
longest
occupation,
by Turkey, Idsted
five
centuries,
ending relatively
recently,
in
1912.
W i t ~ 
the'
exception of
25-year
interlude
in the
15th
century,
only
twile
has
the
5mall
Balkan natiol1
iOlllld itself
freefrom
foreign
rule-in
the
interval
iJetween the
twe
world
wars
andfrom
194
1
1
to
date.
It
was
in
1944 that
a guerrilla"truggle
led by
Enver
Hodxa,
then
a
teacher
at
the French in
Korce,
a
small
southeast(:>rn
town
managedto free
the
country from Nazi occupation -
an
Ilmrecedented
feat,
accomplished with
no
outside
help.It
is
no wonder,
then,Albanians
are
fiercely nationalistic.
Prior
to
1944,.
Albania
was
Furope's
most
backward
rate
of 80 percent,
no
universities,
veryfew
doctors
andfew olaces
of entertainment.
The
country
had
no
railroads
either.
Albanian peasants, and (inset) national hero, Skanderbeg
Albania
is
still poor when compared with
the
rest
of
Europe.
Nevertheless,
Albanians
live
today
above
the
DOVCrtv
level: thereare
jobs for
everyorle
and
health
care
is
provided
free
by
When traveling in
the
countryside, I
saw
no
or
Vegetable
stores
and
small
shops,
usually
modest
in appearance,
offer
a
variety
of basic foodstuffs
and
products
and
customers do not
have
to wait
in
!ine
for
two or
three hours
as
they
do
in
the
Soviet
Union.
People
are
reasonablywell
dressed,
although jewelry
and fancy
clothing
are
conspicuously
absentfrom
feminine
apparel.
Albanian children
do
not
play
with
toys
like their
Western
counterparts; their
parents make
rag
dolls or put together wood-andwire
toy
cars.
With
the
exception
of a monument
erected
in
who
i:,
said
to
haveused
herds
of
gOdts
to
help
amJ
Enver
Hodxa's
tomb
set
on
Tiran('\
highest
spot
-
hath
of
i m n r p ~ < ; i v p 
but simple I
saw
no
adorned artwork. Albania
is
a
who
lead
modest
lives.
Apartment
buildings,
eSSen(ldl\ recall the
collective housing
found
in
some
poor
n
..
iphborhoods.
The
tourist would
be hard
put
to
find a luxurious
house
orthat would symbolically distinguish
state
or party officials:rom
the
rest
of
True
to
its
ideology; Albania
ha<;
none
withAll Albanian
workers
earn
between
.500
and
1,000
{US$l
which
makes
the
top
s,llafY
2
double
the
lowest.
All
soldiers
wear the
same
uniform
in the army:
officers
from
their
suhordinates
only
by
an
additional
star
or
two.for
the
official
cars at
the service
of ministries
buses
or
motorcycles, Albania
is
a silent
cows,
trucksand
d o z e n ~ 
i1
SIght
that
can
beseen
nowhere
else
in
Few
tractors
or modern machines
are used
for
plowing: everything
is
donemostly
by
women, since
most
men
hold factory
jdJs.
At
midnightI
watched
a lonely
street
sweeperfrommy
hotel
window
in
downtown
Tirane
(population
250,000)
as
he
methodically tidied
up
the
square's
walkwavs.
If
any
late
night pedestrian happened
across
the
sqUdre,
the sweeperback
to erase
the foot
By day,
the
Albanian capital
is
a
fJ"ULCI
UI, 
the
neurotic hubbub of our
W ~ ~ s t e r n 
metropolises
and
no
pollution. After a
17-year 
downtown
Tirane
were
two
new
traffic 
museums
where
the
extraordir 
The
old
statues
of
Stalin
and
Lenin 
Heroes. 
Ti
rane's
main mosque remains closed
to
the
the
governmentshut
down
ali
of
the
country's
churches, mosques
andsynagogues,
not a single religious temple
has
opened
its
The
cathedral
in
Shkoder, in
northern Albania,
was
onceone
of
the
major
CatholiC temples
in
southeastern
Europe;
now
it
is
a
sports center.
In
the
Adriatic
resort
of
Durres, thelocal mosque
has
been
turned illto a cultural
center,
complete with a
dance
hall.
In
Berat,
a small town
in
central Albania, I
saw
twowarehouses
installed
on
what
used
to
be
the main floor of a
mosque.
Albania
is
probably
the
only country
in the
world where religion
is
outlawed.
The
only available
copy
of the Bible
is
kept
at
the
National Library
in
Tirane.Albanian
authorities
have
been seeking
to
put
new
life into principal
churches
and
Orthodox chapels
by
tuming
them
into public
museums.
They
all sporta banner
above
the main
entrance ('voking a
phrase
by
Hodxa proclaiming
the
value of
old
national
that 6,000icons
are
i ~
that,
in
addition
to its
historical
sites
at
Butrint
and
Apollonia -dating
backfrom
Roman
and
Greek
times
--
Albania
hasan
abundance of
mosques
and
chapels attesting
to
the
fundamental role religion
played in
consolidating
thenation's
culture.
But
Albania
has
more
to distinguish itself
from the
rest
of
the
world
than
the
fact
that
religion
and
public worship
have
been
banned
under
the
constitution.
It
is
also
the
only country
in the
world where
the
prices of
basicgoods
have
remained
stable
for
45years
-
some
thing
that
Brazi
lians, Israelis and
Chileans
may
find
hard
to
believe. And
there's
more:
the
price of
sugar
dropped
from
10
leks
to
8
leks
a kilo.
Better salaries
have
risen
steadily
sinceend
of World
War II,
while
the gap
between minimum
and
maximum
wages
has
shrunk.
All this
is
part of
the
Albanian reality, although it might
be
considered
absurd
by
capitalist
free
market adherents.
Regardless
of what people
may
think, it
is
worth exploring how
and
Why
acountry
has
managed
to
keep prices
stable
for
4S
year,>
without suffering
an
economic
and
financial
catastrophe.
To
be
sure,
Albania still
lives
off
resources
that
may
seem
archaic to
us
in
the
West. Some 350
kilometers of railroad
have
been
built
by
brigades of young volunteers who
have
also
planted thousandsof
vineyards and
olive
trees
on
the
mountain
slopes in
the
south.
The
Socialist
People's
Republic of Albania
remains
an
agricultural nation that
exports
wine,olives,
nuts andsheep
to the
rest
oi
Europe
-but it
is
also
the
world's thirdproducer of chromium, trailing only
the Soviet
Union
and South
Africa.
to
its
hydroelectric potential, Albania
also
exports
electric
power
to five
European
nations, including Austria,
and may soon
exporting oil.
In
1989.
Albanian officials
are
scheduled
to
attend
mini<:tnJ-!
..vpl 
insoutheastern
Europe. The results
of
those 
whether this country, which
at
present
keeps
diplomatIC with
100
other
ndt;ons, plans
to
open
up 
independence. 
THIRD
WORLD,
April
1989
11
Tourism
Concern
Activities
In
d
previous
issue
oiANt
we
had announced
the iormation
ol
the
Tourism
ConcernNetwork
in
England.
Below
are
listed
projects,
both ootential and
in
which
membels
of
the steering
group
areengdged.
Education: Irmut into production of a leaflet
on
tourism
and
,..jP\lolnnmnnt
lpanying workshop
in
a school's
Centre for World
Development
Education
(C\lVDE),schor!.
,(,,<1
Production of
source
based
materials
on tourism'S
impact
\Jew
College
Durham.
Production of
schools pack on
tourism
in
the
Thirdof
three
BlickwC'chse!
film
fortourists.
Producing
for
teachers.
Developing
cl
worbhop
on
tourism• Developing
a
session
on
tourism's impact.
Public
/Tourist Education:
DeSign and
implementation
of
a project to mount
an
exhibition along
the
lines
ofthe
European
Tourism
with Insight
stand.
the most
of your
Holiday.
Responsive Traveller's
'.
:nfluencing
Tourism
Development: Consultations
for
dGldemics,writers,
tour
operators
exploring
t o u r i ~ m 
is<;lJPs.
(May 24th
The
Social
Dimensions of
Tourism)
• Criteria
for
Tourism
Development·· circulating their criteria
to
donor
agencies
involved
in
World Development
Projects,
Or1
behalf of
TEN
(Third
World l()urism
European
Network)
..
Contact with
Intasun
rf'v;lrrliniJ
operation
in Goa.
Supporting Alternatives: Production
of
a
Responsive Traveller's
Handbook,with
suggestions
for
non
'package'
travel.
Circulation of
leaflet
on
small-scaletourism
initiatives
inAsia
to
independent
travellers,
with
requests
torfeedback.
For
details
wntact:
Alison StdncliHe, 8
St.
Mary's
Terrace, Ryton, Tyne
and
Wear,
NE40
3AL
U.K.
Sexual Assault in Pattaya
Pattaya
last
month
was
assaulted.
For
various
have
earned
a notorious reputation forof
vice, and
simplv leaving
crimes
and
their
to
take the
woman
back toher
taken
to
Jomtien
beach and
at
the
hotel
knew
what
Anne
had
to
p o l i n ~ 
an
hour
later,
THE
NATION,
Bangkok,
31
July
19SQ
THAILAND:
Anti-AIDS campaign
number
OIle
health threat,
and
is
, ' relations experts
to
launch a
allli-KlV,)
L d l l l f J d i ~ l L 
ThePrime
Minister Chatichai Choonhavan
and
chief
Chava!it Yongchaiyudh
have
agreed
to
support the campaiqn
AIDS.
has
gained notoriety
as
a
major
destination
for sex
and
recent
surveys
showed 3,000
prostitutes here
were
carrying thevirus
(HIV).
Tn
addition,
an
estimated
44,000
heroin
addlcts
here are
also
HlV
carriers.the
anti-AIDS
drive
is Mr.
Mechai
Viravaidhya,
a
marl
who
is
for
Thailand's highly-successful
mass
educationpopulation control.
Mr.
Mechai
masterminded
gimmicks
likeconrJnm-hlnwino cOlltests
and
free vasectoflljes
on
the
King's
birthday
to
planning
in
Thailand."People
want
the government
to
do
more and
encourage others
to
do
more,"
said
Mr.
Mechai
in
an interview.
In
the Dast Thailand,
like
other developing countries troubledattempted
to
keep official
statistics under
wraps
discussion about
AIDS
in
public.
Some
observers
have
speculmea
Thai
officials
were
protecting a flourishing
sex
industry
millions
of
tourists
to
the country
in
recent years.A priority
in
the government campaign
will
be
the country's network
of
massage parlours and brothels
for
Thais
and
foreig ners.
Cllofficidlestimates
of
the total number
of
prostitutes
in
Thailand range
from
to
1101l0lJU
;:,ay
that
if
continues unabated,the virus
willcut
a
rapid
and deadly course through the
populace.
Theofficials
also
fear that a widespread
AIDS
outbreak
will
strain thecountry's
limitedpublic
health facilities.A
law
requiring brothel owners
to
cooperatEwill
be
enforced later this
year,
with
mil
not
testing,
has
become the
Thai
organisations
haveand
a number
of
them
have
ness programmes
of
their
own.
One
such
camDaiqner
homosexual
who
has
a jazz dance
gay
bars.
TIMES OF
INDIA,
18
Auguq
1989
Saving The Periyar
and
private
agencies,
local
bodie5
andQrganisations
have
come
forward
to
save
Periyar,
the
river
in
Ker,lld,
frolll
and
other
problems.
Periyar
is
considered
themain
lifeline of
Keraf:a
as
the
state
derives
m;lIlifoldbenefits
from
the
river
including
power
generation
irr;,,,,ti,,,,
development,
industrial
activity,
construction.contributed
Sanctuary,
Ihekkady
I c ~ k e 
and
tht>
B(;thclthankettu
ReservOir
for
boat
cruiSing
ilrc potential tourist
t l t t l , l l t i ( ) n ~ . 
According
to
a
recent
study,
the waters
of
P ~ ' I ' i Y , l r , 
once
c o n ~ i d p r ( ' d 
to
I){'curative,
are
highly polluted
now.
The
rivpr
(,l1H101
be
lbPd
(''It'll
tor
d
hdth.
Thf' industries dependent
on
the
Periyar
punm ,lbollt
13
Itlkh
k i ! ( ) l i t l ( ' ~ 
()f
effluents into
it
d'lily.
This
h(lS
affecwd fi:;hing
and
often
lhe
dWllli(
that
f i ~ h 
fln,ll
up
d(wL
Some
300
delegates
e'lVironment,llists,
scientists, goV('rnnH'rlt
of/it
i<ll,
dlldindustrialists,
clssembledon
June'lrd under
,1
pandal
spt
lip
hpsici(' the
fhlVdi
were
tilerl'
for
oreiiminarv
d i ~ ( u s ~ i o m 
011
dll
dclion
nl,m
to
"S,lVP
INDIAN
fXPRESS.
4
jllllC
I'm');
,v..
DECCAN HERALD. II
Jt;m'
1'!Wl
 
10
Travellers'
Tales
Granta
26:
TRAVEL, Sprin9
1989,
Penguin
Books,
UK
The art
of
travel writing
is
probably
as
old as
Megasthenes, the Greektraveller whose meticulous recording
of
India in the fourth century
BC
was
the forerunner
of
many later ventures
in
the genre. The British werethe ones who honed
itto
a skill. The expansion
of
Empire had probablysomething
to
do
with it -the need to explain,
to
evoke, the lands comingunder the
Pax
Britanica
to
the folks back home. lt
was
also the
Age of
Explorations, when intrepid travellers penetrated
to
places where
no
white man had set foot before and 'discovered' them,
so to
speak,
in
print.Thus Wilfred Thesiger traversed the Empty Quarter, Richard Burtonsought Arabia (thus setting the trend for the whole 'Laurence
of
Arabia'school
of
writing), Alexandra
David
Neel went off to
find
magic andmystery in Tibet, and
so
on.The key work in all this
was
'exotica'; this brave band were seeking themysterious, the marvellous, the bizarre. Their descendants, however, 
say,
Laurence Durrell, Geoffrey Moorhouse, even
V.
S,
Naipaul-
had anadded aim. Their impulse
was
to seek the very soul
of
a society. Throughthe vivid, telling prose, the descriptions
of
scenery, architecture andrandom conversations, they were after the single leitmotif -an incidentor anecdote -which would explain the entire ethos, culture, philosophyand very probably the future too
of
the place they were writing about.
To
this has been added yet another element: politics. Much contemporary writing on distant, unknown places originates
as
reportage -thewars, the famines, the disasters,
Somehow,
all the still unknown worlds(unknown
to
the West, that
is)
seem at the mercy of totalitarian rulers,beset
by
colonialism, underdevelopment and poverty. The humancondition
of
those who live in such locations, their environments, theirthreatened cultures, can all be traced in some
way
to the functioning
of
their political structures.The selection
of
travel writing
in
Cranta
26
(Spring
1989
issue)
all
bearswitness
to
this. The questions this anthology poses on its back coverare revealing: 'What kind
of
writing
do
travel writers write
now(
How
longcan the exotic remain exotic?' These questions are revealing becauseall but
two of
the essays are on third world countries (Africa has thelargest share) and the Eastern
Bloc.
The
two
essays that deal with thefirst world -both on the American Midwest are devoid
of
any politicalslant whatsoever.
It
is
as
if
in these days
of
easy travel,
of
open frontiersand the all-seeing eye
of
television, the last resort
of
the exotic
is
totalitarianism.The essays
in
this book are
of
a formidably high quality. RyszardKapuscinski's laconic exegesis
of
life in
ldi
Amin's Kampala (,Christmas
Eve
in Uganda')
is
a masterpiece
of
prose.
He
describes his efforts
to
buyfish in this frightened, malevolent town; the arrival
of
a truck laden withfish
was
at first greeted with delight, then by fear and revulsion. The fishwere from the lake at Port
Bell,
the same lake
in
which corpses from
ldi
Amin's torture chambers were dumped, that explained the
fat,
sleek
Costly
Everest Climb
quality of the merchandise.The political message
is
more explicit in Jeremy Harding's 'Polisario',
.Mountaineers
win
have to
climb
over trash from previous expe­
an account
of
the long, expensive, undeclared war
in
the Sahara and
of
..
ditionsto
get
to
the top
of
Mount
Everest,
and
pay more to
do
it
the enormous wall the Moroccans built which the desert wind and sand
starting
this
season.
ConselVationists have
calledfor
a
moratorium
is
already eroding. Harding's account
in
enlivened
by
the chaos
in
his
own
qndimbin:gMt
Everest
because
it
is
polluted
by
rubbish,
but
cash-
.
private
life: his
fears that his wife might leave
him
for
a German architect
strapped
Nepal
seems
to
need the
money. Nepal's
Tourism
Ministry,
I
who
was
wooing her with outsize boxes
of
chocolates.
whic:hcoordin:ates
climbing
activities
in
the
Himalaya.
this
week.;.
.
The note
of
personal self discovery
is
also sounded
in
Colin Thubron's
announced steeper autumn rates for mountaineering expeditions.
I
account
of
making a television documentary
on
the
Old
Silk
Route
andthe artifice they
had
constantly
to
resort
to
make
it
look 'real' on the
box,
Norman
Lewis
on
Siam
and
Ian
Buruma
on Taiwan
are both requiems fordying cultures -the authentic Taiwanese one being swamped today
by
a
mixof
mainland Chinese,
J a p a n e ~ e 
Jnd
American Kitsch;
allel
thetrilditional Thai
way
of
life being losllo
~ l l 
eilter AIlIericana
..
a
mix
of
"drinking whiskey, danring
in
puhlic
p l i l ( , ( \ ~ 
ilnrl
strip lease", The tone
is
more-in-sorrow-than anger, but
in
fact neither emotion really getsthrough.The essays on the Soviet Union are immeasurably more powerful,possibly because the overly moral tone
is
lacking. Bruce Chatwin
(to
whose memory this volume
is
dedicated) has three very short pieces, butthey convey the flavour
of
pre-glasnost
life,
for instance in the terseportrait
he
draws
of
Nadezhda Mandelstamlying on rumpled sheets, out
of
official
favour,
longing for trashy thrillers and English marmalade.Similarly, Patrick Cockburn (Notes from Abroad:
Moscow)
describes aforeign correspondent's life
as
glasnost
was creaking into action and theSoviets, slowly but surely learnt the previously purely western art
of
saccharine public relations.
His
last sentence gives
away
the hiddenassumption
in
most
of
the pieces in this volume:
"I
missed the sense
of
exclusion,
of
being a permanent outsider. lt was time
to
leave".
John
Ryle's
account
of
the systematic persecution
of
the Dinka tribe inSudan
is
an authentic classic
of
today's brand of travel writing.
In
veryunderstated prose, yet with a faint but discernible undertone
of
anger,
Ryle
documents the plight
of
the Dinka who peacefully herded their cattlefor centuries, but today live in the shanty towns
of
Khartoum
as
a result
of
forces -governments, political interests, tribal rivalries and Libyanarms and money -they
do
not even begin to understand.Very different
in
tone and perhaps the most interesting pieces in theissue, are the
two
accounts
of
the American Midwest.
Bill
Bryson's 'More
Fat
G'irls
in
Des
Moines'
is
a peppy account
of
his journey through
Iowa,
Illinois and Missisippi -middle America at its most tasteless, barren andbizarre. It's funny, irreverent and vivid, but this style has its own limits:
''It
looked the sort
oftidy,
friendly, clean-thinking college that Clark Kentwould have attended", and many more such zippy one liners. Even
so
it'sa welcome relief from all the suffering humanity
of
the other pieces.Amitav Ghosh
(The
Circle
of
Reason,
The Shadow
Lines)
writes
a
wry,
spare account of the 'Four Corners', the point where the states
of
Colorado, Utah,
New
Mexico and Arizona meet, right in the middle
of
theflattest, most uninteresting bit
of
countryside in America. Here twonotional lines intersect. This area
was
once the 'Glittering World'
of
theNavajo tribe, where they lived for generations evolving a sophisticatedsystem
of
beliefs and behaviour but these couldn't withstand the guns
of
the American
Army.
Today,
Four
Corners
is
a tourist pilgrimage whereAmericans in Recreational Vehicles -a sort
of
state
of
the art trailer draw
up,
strike interesting poses for their photo albums and buy Navajokitsch souvenirs. Ghosh's article
is
specially interesting because it's analmost anthropological account
of
late twentieth century AmericanMidwestern social behaviour written without overt comment
It
is
alsorefreshing
to
have
a
third worlder writing about the poverty of advancedsocieties.
Ranjana Sengupta
in
EXPRESS
M A G A n N ~ , 
9
July
1989
,,-.
-
...
-.'
--l
!
Mt.Everest
will
have the
highest
price
tag
--
a little over $3,000
for
a
climb.
This
is
a 20%
increase over present rates. Mountains
between
7,500 and
8,000
metres
high
will
cost
just
over
$1
AOO
'
. and peaks less than 7,500 metres can
be
booked for $1,000.
iNDIAN
EXPRESS,
17
August
1989
3
Tourism
And
Nona-Governmental
Expeditions
(NGEs)
The
interest/incidence
of
both
NGEs
and tourist groups
in
the
Antarctic
is
fast
increasing.
NGEs
see the Antarctic
as
the
last
great
3rena
for
wildernessadventure,and
commercial
operatorssee
a
virtually
untouched
field of
opportunity,
This
rapidly
developing
interest
is
potentially threatening
to
the protection
of
the
Antarctic
as
a
wi
Iderness.
Several
groups
in
Austral
ia,
for
instance,
have
indicated interest
in
the
construction
of
a
747-capable
runway
and hotel
complexnear
Davis,
a
major
Antarctic scientific'oasis:
The
projects envisage
a
week
long
package
for
the
well-heeled
tourist.
Avoiding
the
admittedly
rough
seapassage
through
icebergsand
sea
ice,
visitors
would
arrive
without
acclimat
isation
and
an
appreciation
of
the
vulnerability
of
the
region.
Because
of
the extremely
small
percentage
of
the
continent
which
is
ice-free,
any
shore-based
tourist
development
wi
II
be
competing
for
space
with
otherI
ife
forms,
and
areas
such
as
flora
and
fauna
concentrations, which
tourists
wi
II
wantto see,
will
surely
be
threatened.
Disruptions
to
scientific programmes
will
also
be
likely
as
hotels
will
necessarily
be
sited
near
existing
bases.
Controlled
ship-borne
tourism
reJ-lresents
one
possible
acceptable
way
to
convey
people
to
this wonderful
continent:
the
approach
by
sea
enables
one
to
appreciate
its
isolation, and the beauty
of
icebergs and
pack
ice.
Onshore
tourist
impact
can be minimised
in
this
way;
guided
day
trips
to
sites
of
interest,
especially
to
areas which
have
lost
their pristine
quality.
However,
a precedent
has
been set
for
shore-based tourism.
A
40-bed
hotel
has
beenconstructed
at
Teniente
Marsh,
a
Chilean base
on
King
George
Island.
In
this case,
the
development appears
to
bepart
of
a a 'colonisation'
process,
to
'support'
Chile's
claim to Antarctic
Territory.
Antarctic and Southern
Ocean
Coalitioll,
Australia
' ! ~ ~ · · . P ~ ' l 1 { t i f J i t h e ·
••
cfesired
...
no/fJtbefpf
.ll,te
..................
.
~ > s : t ' t ~ : : g ( j V f r o . ~ e i J t ~ l s ( f j q i m ) 
fn·(1t1
effotttoi::'
~ ' ! < l l r n p i O v ~ & . ( : j f j t J f : s . ~ l i ~ r O ~ ( / f r o n r T r i V a n d r t ! ~ 
..
'
"'.
.
...
g!vetheffl$tlnklingtd
the
visitorsofthe
d l s f n t e r ~ . 
ies.s.ofthe.kJcaI4uJhoriticS;{heentfl'e,rolJtelsdotted withheaps
.
...
W ' ; g ~ n i t e · r u b l ) J e t : t n d B T . 0 I J P s O f ~ p ! t : % b r e a k i n g 
hugeboutders.There
.'
..
,.are
noexc;luslve
transport
sYfJtems{or
the
tourists
t
who
hal1e
totrave/
'.::JlJcrowdedpublicbuses
to
reach
the
resort,
18
kmsaway;'
.
,"
. T ~ e $ e V e r e s t b J o w w . a s
delivered
to
the
beach
by
encroacherswith the
.:iacqulescenceofa
previous
sfategrwernment
{TDC
hadacquired
a
large
stretr;hof
the
/)each when
the
hatel
was
startedin
Kavalam.
Soon
the
: ~ e ( 1 c h a n t 1 1 e s i ( / e : : a f t h e 
hotel
was
encroached upon
by
traders
and
.
,'#ndesiralJ(es.:.!\fJOwnas
t h e ~ . v e ' S 
beach,
it
has
growninta
a
den
ofall
·.·VicestlSsociati:d with
international tourism including drug trafficking.
The
state. gOvernment
has
done
precious
little
ta
rid
the
place
of
the
growing
drugttade.
Nudity
is
common
and
a
large
number
of
tourists,
.
foreign
and
domestic, dread the
area.
THE
WEEK.
26
May
1989
palni
Hills
Conservation
Council
The
Palni
I-lills
Conservation Council
is
a
secular,
voluntary,
non-po!itical
organisation
for
public
welfare and
scientific research.
The
work
of
the
PHCC
falls
into
three
main
categories:
*
Publicity
dnd
awareness generation
*
Environmentalpolicy,research
dnd
implementation
*
Developmentprogrammes.
A