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carbon in cast iron

carbon in cast iron

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Published by: bubble_pink13 on Mar 08, 2011
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08/21/2011

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CARBON FORMATIONFactor that affect the cast iron1.
 
Cooling rate.2.
 
Element.3.
 
Heat treatment.
Cooling Rate
A high rate of cooling during solidification tends to favour theformation of cementite rather thangraphite. That is, the higherthe rate of cooling for any given cast-iron composition the'whiter' andmore brittle the casting is likely to be. This effect is important in connection with the choice of asuitable iron for theproduction of castings of thin section. Supposing an iron which,when cooledslowly, had a fine grey structure containing smalleutectic cells were chosen for such a purpose. Inthin sections itwould cool so rapidly that cementite would form in preference to graphite and a thinsection of completely white iron wouldresult. Such a section would be brittle and useless.
Element
CarbonHigher is the carbon, more is graphite formed and lowerthe mechanical properties. Carbons lowerthe melting point of metaland act a graphitiser to favour the formation of gray cast ironSilicon1.
 
Silicon is added to cast irons in the range of 1% to 4% in order to increase the amount of under-cooling required for the formation of cementite and promote the formation of graphite during solidification.2.
 
Influence fluidity3.
 
Graphitizer agent4.
 
Cooling rate control to decomposed carbide eutectic5.
 
Silicon promotes the precipitation of secondary graphite on the primary graphite during theeutectoid transformation, which results in large areas of ferrite (commonly called freeferrite) around the graphite particles.Sulfur
 
High sulfur tend to reduce fluidity and some ime responsible for blow holeManganese
 
Manganese is carbide stabilizer
 
P
hosphorusMost cast iron contain phosphorus between .1 to . 3%.Its amount may be more than .9%, then itforms iron phosphide (Fe3
P
), which form a ternary eutectic with cementite and austenite. Theternary Eutectic is called steadite. Steadite is brittle and has a melting point of around 960 degree.This increase the fluidity also helps in giving good castability to the thin and intricate casting, wherelow melting fluid could easily flow. However for thick and high strength cast iron casting, brittlesteadite can be avoided by maintaining phosphorus less than 0.3%, which shall be present in dissolvestate in ferrite.
H
eat treatment
White cast iron to malleable cast iron by graphitization and cooling.Cementite (iron carbide) is actually a metastable phase. There is atendency for cementite todecompose into iron and carbon, but undernormal conditions it tends to persist indefinitely in itsoriginal form.Up to this point, cementite has been treated as a stable phase; however,this tendencyto form free carbon is the basis for the manufacture ofmalleable cast iron. The reaction Fe3 C 3Fe +C is favoured byelevated temperatures, the existence of solid non metallic impurities,higher carboncontents, and the presence of elements that aid thedecomposition of Fe3 C On the ironironcarbide equilibrium diagramfor the metastable system, shown in Figure. 16, are superimposedthephase boundaries of the stable iron-carbon (graphite) system as dottedlines. The purpose of malleabilization is to convert all the combinedcarbon in white iron into irregular nodules of tampercarbon (graphite)and ferrite. Commercially, this process is carried out in two stepsknown as the firstand second stages of the anneal.White irons suitable for conversion to malleable iron are of the following range of composition:Components
P
ercentageCarbon 2.00-2.65Silicon 0.90-1.40Manganese 0.25-0.55
P
hosphorus Less than 0.18sulphur 0.05In the first-stage annealing, the white-iron casting is slowly reheated toa temperature between 1660and 1750°F. During heating, the pearlite isconverted to austenite at the lower critical line. Theaustenite thusformed dissolves some additional cementite as heated to the annealingtemperature.The rate of annealing depends on chemical composition, nucleationtendency, and temperature of annealing. The temperature of first-stageannealing exerts considerable influence on the number of temper-carbon particles produced. Increasing annealing temperature acceleratesthe ratedecomposition of primary carbide and produces more graphite particles per unit area.However,high

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