Pharmacist Training: Improving Managerial and Operation SkillsINTRODUCTION
Pharmaceutical care was defined by Hepler and Strand (1990) as:³
The responsible provision of drug therapy for the purposes of achieving definiteoutcomes that improve a patient¶s quality of life¶
. (p.534)The pharmacy profession, especially in the community and retail setting, involves theintegration of knowledge-based and value-based practices. (Benson, 2009) The evolving role of community and retail pharmacists are making them more involved with the managing thepatient¶s care plan. (Hudson, Mc Anaw, & Johnson, 2009) In the community setting, pharmacistsare required to do supervisory roles, which include inventory keeping, staff management,completing the requirements of the state, cash management, as well as interacting directly withcustomers. (D'Arcy, 2011) As an indicator of a pharmacist¶s performance would be the level of patient/customer satisfaction. (See Figure 1 in Appendix) According to Dougherty,³
Pharmacies that are focused on service garner the highest levels of satisfaction.Customer service still trumps price, even in an environment where cost has becomeincreasingly important.´
(as cited by Tews & Perlman, 2010)
Although this profession has been described as a chance to add value to a communitywhile running a business this growing role, however, is causing stress and lowering themotivation of pharmacists. Factors of this lowered morale include increased administrative andtechnical workloads, decreased support staff from work, long working hours, low pay and evenhard-to-please customers. (Smeaton, 2008; Finch, 2008) On top of this, especially for employeepharmacists, meeting sales quotas for an outlet is also a factor.