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Sustainable Aviation Report 2011

Sustainable Aviation Report 2011

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Mobility and transportation interlink the global economy. Aviation is an important enabler for the trade of goods, tourism, services and the socioeconomic development of nations. Significant growth of aviation is expected in the next decades, especially in developing countries in Asia (particularly India and China) and the Middle East. Aviation CO2 emissions currently account for approximately 2% of total CO2 emissions and are expected to grow significantly with traffic growth.

The Forum hopes this report will support a wider multistakeholder dialogue among industry, government stakeholders and non-governmental communities to build a practical enabling environment that is conducive to catalysing a step change in private and public sector action to decrease aviation CO2 emissions, develop and deploy revolutionary new technologies, and provide sustainable investment choices at scale and speed.
Mobility and transportation interlink the global economy. Aviation is an important enabler for the trade of goods, tourism, services and the socioeconomic development of nations. Significant growth of aviation is expected in the next decades, especially in developing countries in Asia (particularly India and China) and the Middle East. Aviation CO2 emissions currently account for approximately 2% of total CO2 emissions and are expected to grow significantly with traffic growth.

The Forum hopes this report will support a wider multistakeholder dialogue among industry, government stakeholders and non-governmental communities to build a practical enabling environment that is conducive to catalysing a step change in private and public sector action to decrease aviation CO2 emissions, develop and deploy revolutionary new technologies, and provide sustainable investment choices at scale and speed.

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Published by: World Economic Forum on May 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Pl llbPhP fubl 
Report prepared with the support of Booz & Company
 
 The Policies and Collaborative Partnership for Sustainable Aviationreport was produced in February 2011 by the World EconomicForum as a cross-industry report.World Economic Forum, Geneva, Copyright © 2011 The signicant contribution of Booz & Company is gratefullyacknowledged.
ditors
 Thea Chiesa, Associate Director, Head Aviation, Travel & Tourism,World Economic ForumRuth Densborn, Associate, Booz & Company
Project dvisor
Jürgen Ringbeck, Senior Vice-President, Booz & Company The World Economic Forum would like to thank the followingorganizations that contributed to this report:
Project teering board
 Airbus Air Transport Action Group (ATAG)Bombardier AerospaceDelta Air LinesEmbraerEtihad AirwaysGulf AirInternational Air Transport Association (IATA)Lockheed MartinLufthansa/SwissRolls-Royce The World Bank
Participating form Partners
 Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) All Nippon Airways Asian Development Bank (ADB)BPCathay Pacic AirwaysClimate Change CapitalDHLFedEx ExpressIndEU CapitalInter-American Development Bank (IDB)International Air Transport Association (IATA)Jet Airways (India)NovozymesShellStandard BankUnited Parcel Service (UPS)
ter ontritors and onsted rganizations
 Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA), India AquaowBaker & McKenzieBeyond TourismBird Group (GGC)British AirwaysCamco InternationalCivil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO)Carbon Markets & Investors Association (CMIA)DePaul University, International Aviation Law InstituteEuropean CommissionIgnite Energy Resources (IER), New ZealandInternational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)JP Morgan Climate CareMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronauticsand AstronauticsNandan Biomatrix LimitedSolazyme TCIXPS The Climate GroupUnited AirlinesWorld Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
Disclaimer: Any errors in this report are the responsibility of the authors. The views and conclusions expressed are not necessarily those of the contributors and consulted organizations, or of theWorld Economic Forum or its Partner companies.
We would also like to refer to the parallel World Economic Forum/ Booz & Company project on “Repowering Transport”, whichlooked at energy use in the broader transportation sector includ-ing land transport, maritime shipping and aviation. All guresrelated to energy use, CO
2
emissions and mitigation options foraviation are consistent between the two projects.
 
3
Executive Summary
Mobility and transportation interlink the global economy. Aviation is an important enabler for the trade of goods,tourism, services and the socioeconomic developmentof nations. Signicant growth of aviation is expected inthe next decades, especially in developing countriesin Asia (particularly India and China) and the MiddleEast. Aviation CO
2
emissions currently account forapproximately 2% of total CO
2
emissions and areexpected to grow signicantly with trafc growth.With raising awareness of aviation’s CO
2
impacton climate change, the global aviation industrydemonstrated leadership in 2009 by devising a strategyfor achieving aggressive CO
2
emission reductionsthrough technological, operational and infrastructureimprovements, subject to government investmentin the aspects under government control and aregulatory environment conducive to aviation industryinvestment. Provided the necessary public-privatesharing is enabled, the industry committed to collectiveCO
2
emission goals including an annual average1.5% fuel efciency improvement through 2020, netcarbon neutral growth from 2020, and 50% net CO
2
 emission reductions by 2050 compared to 2005 values.
i 
Meanwhile, ICAO, in its process of developing emissiongoals for international aviation in its 37th Assemblyin October 2010, agreed on collective internationalaviation goals of an annual average 2% fuel efciencyimprovement through 2020 and aspirational goals of an annual average 2% fuel efciency improvement from2021 to 2050, as well as considering carbon neutralgrowth from 2020.
ii
Meeting these ambitious goals despite the anticipatedhigh aviation demand growth poses a signicantchallenge. The industry’s 2050 goals, in particular,leaves an 85% CO
2
emission reduction gap comparedto the business-as-usual approach, even thoughwhat is dened as “business as usual” in this caseassumes continual industry investment in more fuel-efcient aircraft to replace older aircraft and expand theworldwide aircraft eet to meet demand. To allow the aviation industry to accommodate growingtrafc demand and at the same time reach its ambitiousCO
2
goals through 2050, signicant additional effort isrequired in a number of elds that have the potentialto further reduce aviation’s carbon footprint. The mostpromising carbon abatement levers in aviation areinfrastructure improvements, additional R&D especiallyfor radical new aircraft technologies and in particularaviation biofuels. Global market-based measures,such as emissions trading and offsetting, may beuseful to complement the foregoing. To overcome theimplementation challenges, a set of opportunities existin the areas of policy, partnerships and nancing as wellas information and education. Signicant leadershipopportunities need to be taken by the industry to reachthe CO
2
goals.Positive incentives (e.g. scal) are seen as having themost potential to increase investment in reducingcarbon in the aviation industry. Incentives should betargeted at the best investor in emission reduction inthe value chain. Green levies and taxes currently inimplementation or discussion in a number of countriesare not seen as viable options to achieve the industry’sCO
2
reduction goals. Levies and market mechanismstake money out of the industry without signicantemission reduction effect, if the money raised is notreinvested in CO
2
emission reduction projects, and theindustry has fewer funds available to invest in emissionreduction measures. For any measures geared towardsmarginally decreasing air travel (e.g. through increasingprice), the potential negative macroeconomic effectson gross domestic product (GDP) and economicdevelopment must be considered. The most promising leadership opportunities identiedfor the industry to pursue are:
viation inrastrctre
: Information and educationof policy-makers on the criticality and urgency of implementing aviation infrastructure improvementson the air trafc management (ATM) and airport level
dditiona aircrat &
: Work with policy-makersto develop nancial and legal incentives to increaseinvestment into incremental R&D for radical newaircraft technologies
viation ioes
: Work with policy-makers todevelop nancial incentives, legal incentives andstandards, and to drive vertical partnerships withstakeholders along the entire biofuel value chain
Market-ased measres (MbM)
: Actively engageand support governments working with ICAO in thedevelopment of a global sectoral MBM approachfor aviation through partnerships with experts fromthe carbon nance community, and ensure that anymeasures that are developed focus on incentivizingthe parties best placed to make the CO
2
abatementinvestment

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