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Date of Adi Sankaracarya_Facts Fiction and Fraud

Date of Adi Sankaracarya_Facts Fiction and Fraud

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Published by hari18
Discussion on the controversy of the date of Adi Sankaracharya and his times as known through different works
Discussion on the controversy of the date of Adi Sankaracharya and his times as known through different works

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: hari18 on May 14, 2011
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06/02/2013

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1
Date of
Ā
di
Ś
a
ň
kar
ā
c
ā
rya – Facts, Fiction and Frauds
K. Chandra Hari
ƒƒƒƒ
 
Gururatnam
ā
lika gives
Ś
a
ň
kara’s date as:
Tis
  
ye pray
ā
tyanala
ś
evatib
ā
n
  
anetre
ƒƒƒƒ
bde nandanedinaman
  ā
vudagdhvabh
ā
ji IR
ā
dhe
ƒƒƒƒ
diteruduvinirgatamastralagne
ƒƒƒƒ
sy
ā
h
ū
tavan
ś
ivaguruh
  
sa ca
ś
a
ň
kareti II
According to this verse
Ś
a
ň
kara was born in Dhanur lagna and Pun
  
arvasu naks
  
atra, inthe month of Vai
śā
kha during Uttar
ā
yana when 2593 years of Kaliyuga had elapsed,which corresponds to BC 508. Scholars have deciphered other details such as
ś
uk
apa
ń
cami and sunday also from this verse and have considered this as veryauthentic information quoted by
Ā
tmab
ō
dha, 58
th
 
Ā
c
ā
rya of K
ā
mak
ō
t
  
i P
 ī 
t
  
ha in hiscommentary Sus
  
am
ā
on the Gururatnam
ā
lika.Jinavijaya, a Jaina work likewise gives the date of Kum
ā
rila Bhatta as the year 2077 ofthe Yudhis
  
t
 
ira era that corresponds to 557 BC. Same work gives
Ś
a
ň
kara’s demise inthe year 2157 Yudhis
  
t
 
ira era or 477 BC.Brhat
Ś
a
ň
karavijaya of Citsuk
ā
c
ā
rya gives the detailed horoscope itself for the datefalling in 2631 of Yudhis
  
t
 
ira era [508 BC] and accordingly the lagna is Kat
 
aka and theplanets Sun, Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn were in exaltation signs. Authors A.Nataraja Iyer and S. Lakshminarasimha
Śā
stri who produced the work
The Traditional Age of 
Ś
ī 
 
Ś
ň
kar 
ā
ā
rya and the Mat 
  
hs 
have stated the given planetary positions astrue for the year 509 BC.Citsuk
ā
c
ā
rya is described as the lifelong companion and disciple of Sankara and assuch we have no reason to doubt the information he has recorded.
Veracity of the horoscope given Citsuk
ā
c
ā
rya’s work
Whether the information credited to Citsuk
ā
c
ā
rya is original or an interpolation of thelater years is a million $ question. Whatever may be the case, the planetary positionsgiven in the 32
nd
Prakaran
  
a of Brhat
Ś
a
ň
karavijaya do not belong to either 509 or 508BC or in the neighborhood:
ƒ
 
chandra_hari18@yahoo.com 
This article is an extract from the book “Hindu Zodiac &Ancient Astronomy”
 
2
Planets
λ
: BC 508New moonof 19
th
March17:11Caitr
ā
di22.04.508 BC12:00 UTVai
śā
kha
ś
uk
apa
ń
camiSunday
λ
: BC509New moon of30
th
March 03:35Caitr
ā
di03.05.509 BC12:00 UTVai
śā
kha
ś
uk
aPa
ń
camiWednesdaySun 3553' 25°41' 03°14' 36°25'Moon 352°53' 83°34' 03°14' 93°48'Mars 28°31' 50°50' 2320' 240°33'Mercury 334°08' 06°50' 356°50’ 14°40'Jupiter 247°22' 246°49' 2134' 209°30'Venus 313°18' 353°23' 19°25' 61°31'Saturn 335°54' 339°47' 3228' 328°39'These tropical planetary longitudes clearly indicate that the horoscope data referredabove is a spurious one. Ayan
ā
m
  ś
a for the M
ū
l
ā
dh
ā
ra Cakra will be 10
0
.25 and neitherof the planets will be exalted on the above dates. But T.S. N
ā
r
ā
yan
  
a
Śā
stry had claimedin his work ‘The Age of
Ś
a
ň
kara’ that the planetary data is correct according toastronomical computations: “
We have ascertained from two of the greatest astrologers of South India that this particular combination of the planetary bodies did actually occur on Vai 
śā
kha (Mes 
  
a)
Ś
uk 
 
apa 
ń
cami of the year Nandana in 2593 of the Kaliyuga,corresponding to 509 BC 
”.
‘The Age of
Ś
a
ň
kara’ by T.S. N
ā
r
ā
yan
  
a
Śā
stry
o
Controversy on
Ā
di
Ś
a
ň
kara’s date received much popularity among the gullible publicwith the publication of a Sanskrit work entitled by ‘Vimar
ś
a’ by R
ā
 jar
ā
 je
ś
vara
Ś
a
ň
kar
ā
c
ā
rya Sv
ā
mi of the Dv
ā
raka Mutt in 1898 and ‘The Age of
Ś
a
ň
kara’ by T.S.N
ā
r
ā
yan
  
a
Śā
stry in 1916. In a detailed review of the latter work, T.S. Kuppan
  
n
  
a
Śā
stryhas described both the works as fiction and evidences and authorities quoted asfabrication: To cite a few notable observations:
o
“Another mistake of the concoctors that exposes them is giving Nandana as the year ofbirth in both the
Ś
a
ň
kara-vijayas, while actually it must be Dh
ā
t
ā
for 509 BC accordingto the astronomical Sam
  
hit
ā
s and Siddh
ā
ntas. They have got it by counting backwardsone year of the Jovian cycle for each solar year and arriving at Nandana for 2593 Kali,on the mistaken practice now current in south of India….”
 
3
o
Nar
ā
yan
  
a
Śā
stry’s reference ‘Jinavijaya’ could not be located by TSK
Śā
stry inJinaratnako
ś
a, a bibliography of known Jain works or in Aufrecht’s CatalogusCatalogorum and in the one he could locate the information quoted by N
ā
r
ā
yan
  
a
Śā
stryis untraceable. The situation inspired an erudite scholar like TSK
Śā
stry to comment inbitter terms: “The author must have invented the name and concocted the quotations asthere-from, thinking that evidence from a rival faith’s work would be more convincing…”
o
TSK
Śā
stry has discussed in detail the issue of a copperplate inscription that the
Ś
a
ň
kar
ā
c
ā
rya of Dv
ā
rak
ā
p
 ī 
t
 
ham
  
had quoted in his work as authority for the date. Netconclusion of his analysis is that the copperplate inscription and the works such asBrhat
Ś
a
ň
karavijaya, Pr
ā
c
 ī 
na
Ś
a
ň
karavijaya, Jinavijaya etc are all fabrications of recenttimes and are not genuine historical records.
True historical pointers to the issue
 
According to the report of the Chinese traveler I-T’sing who was in India between 673and 695 AD, Bhartr
 
hari died in 651 – 652 AD. I-T’sing makes no mention of
Ś
a
ň
kara.
Kalhan
  
a’s R
ā
 jatara
ň
gin
  
i places Bhavabh
ū
ti who was a disciple of Kum
ā
rila Bhat
 
t
 
a in theyear 733 AD as a contemporary of Kashmiri king La
it
ā
ditya.
These two records place
Ś
a
ň
kara’s birth in 8
th
century AD, provided there was only onepersonality by the name Kum
ā
rila Bhat
 
t
 
a, whom
Ś
a
ň
kara is said to have visited.
A number of floating verses place
Ś
ankara’s advent during 788 – 820 AD, with birth inthe year “Vibhava”, which according to TSK
Śā
stry is an erroneous back computationmade for Kali 3889.
Horoscope having Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn exalted in Kendras, as recorded inM
ā
dhav
 ī 
ya
Ś
a
ň
karavijaya
1
places the birth in 805 AD as found out by Pichu Aiyer,Cochin State Astrologer.
According to the legends prevailing in Kerala, the beginning of the Kollam era isassociated with
Ś
a
ň
kara’s meeting with the king R
ā
 ja
ś
ekhara in 825 AD.
(contd...)
1
M
ā
dhav
 ī 
ya, II.71, quoted by TSK
Śā
stry: Collected Papers, p.368

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