four values which affect a manager's work, the manager may have a strong "Work Value". Work Valuerefers to the worth a person ascribes to the opportunity of work. If you have a "strong" work value youare going to identify the worth or value of work to you in more ways than one. You may view work asan opportunity to: (a) accept challenges, (b) serve others, (c) earn money, (d) enjoy prestige and status,(e) be creative, or (f) be independent, etc.
Managerial Ethos and its characteristics :
Apart fromthese values, the managerial ethos of high order requires certain other characteristics as well. Let usdescribe these very briefly to you.
Action goal orientation:
Persons with high sense of adequacy haveclear goals about their future and are directed by these goals. They usually do not think their goals instatus terms (i.e., what they would like to be) but in activity terms (i.e., what they would like to do). Forexample, when a junior manager thinks that he would like to be the "Chief of Marketing" he is status-goal oriented; but when he thinks that he would like to be influenced the marketing policies of thecompany, he is action-goal oriented.
Proactive people do things on their own withouthaving to be told by any one. Such initiative taking behavior leads to a high level of activity andexperimentation. As contrasted to these people are reactive persons or conformists who spend most of their lives in doing things that others expect them to do. Reactive people are other-directed, whereasproactive ones are inner-directed. A superior managerial ethos requires more of pro-action thanreaction.
Managers with high sense of adequacy are aware of their internal'strength and are guided by these strengths. They are aware of their weaknesses but this awareness doesnot deter them from acting positively or to look for opportunities for continuous self-improvement.They are open to feedback and ready to learn from experience.
A superiorethos requires that managers view themselves as problem solvers, rather than problem-avoiders. Thesemanagers have a positive orientation to problem situations and do not want to run away from problems.They tend to approach problem situations with optimism because they have internal locus of control,i.e., a strong belief that they can change the environment through their own efforts.
Q3 : THE PREREQUISITES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE CONTROLSYSTEMS
The major prerequisites of control are two: a plan and a structure.a) Plan: controls must bebased on plan. The more clear and complete the plans are the more effective controls can be; plansbecome the standards by which the actions are measured. b) Structure: There is need for a structure toknow where the responsibility rests for deviations and corrective action, if any needed. As in the caseof plans, the more clear and complete the organisation structure is, the more effective control can be.Controls, to he effective, should share the following basic characteristics: Appropriate: Controls shouldcorrespond to an organisation's plans. Controls designed for a general manager are inappropriate for asupervisor. Similarly, control systems suitable for a line department may be inappropriate for a staff department. Strategic: Control should serve a stretegic purpose and provide spotlight on positive andnegative exceptions at critical points. Acceptable: Controls will not work unless people want them to.They should be acceptable to those to whom they apply. Reliable and objective: Controls should beaccurate and unbiased. If they are unreliable and subjective, people will resent them. Cost-effective:The benefit from control should be greater than the costs. Control devices should yield tangiblebenefits.
METHODS OF CONTROL :
Arthur Bedeian discusses nine methods of control andclassifies them into three categories based on their frequency, of use:
Constantly used controls:
Self-control, group control and policies, procedures and rules.
Periodically used controls:
ManagementInformation Systems, External Audits and Budgets.
Occasionally used controls:
Special reports,personal observation and project control. The nine methods of control mentioned above (see Fig. III)are briefly discussed hereunder.
Constant Controls Self-control:
Managers need to exercise more self-control to minimise the need for other control methods and making control in the organisationacceptable and effective. Self-control means giving a fair day's work for a fair day's pay, reporting towork on time, discharging duties and responsibility properly and respecting the rights of others in the
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