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Drilling

Drilling

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Published by Jude Lichy

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Published by: Jude Lichy on Jun 29, 2011
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05/26/2013

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Page
1
of 
46
 
WELL LOGGING AND DRILLINGPurpose of Logging
1)
 
Lack of Core (older wells
)
 2
)
 
D
riller's logs - poor and subjective3
)
 
Core/geol. logs - limited to well bore4
)
 
S
ee behind casing5
)
 
Q
ualitative measurement in-situ6
)
 
Correlation (
SP,
natural gamma
)
- objective record"Geophysical"
,
"wireline"
,
"E-logs" generally refer to thesame thing - they are a part of the process of well production - mud logs
,
 
DST
's and production tests may also be run with geophysical logs.
3 Basic Types
i.
 
electrical (resistivity
,
conductivity
,
 
SP)
 ii.
 
nuclear (density
,
porosity
,
natural radioactivity
)
 iii.
 
sonic (acoustic-porosity
,
fractures
,
correlationwith seismic section
)
 
Others
Caliper 
,
magnetic
,
gravityFluid column logs --> temperature
,
flowmeter 
,
fluidconductivity
Properties sought
y
 
 porosity
y
 
composition (rock and fluid
)
 
y
 
degree of saturation
y
 
 permeability
y
 
metal content
y
 
heat flux
y
 
rock quality
y
 
in-situ stress
Important Dates
19
27-
19
3
1:
 
D
oll
,
 
S
chlumberger brothers - France
,
 
1
stresistivity
,
 
SP
 
19
35 -
D
ipmeter Late
19
40's - Gamma-ray
,
neutron
19
50's - Focused resistivity tools
,
induction tools
19
60's -
D
igital recording
,
full waveform sonic (3
D
 velocity
)
 
19
70's - Borehole televiewer 
,
V
SP,
 
S
limline sondes
,
 integrated circuitry
198
0's - Borehole radar 
,
EM propagation
,
cross-holetomography
,
deep logs
Costs (1986)
Basic suite - $5-
1
0 per foot plus mobilization chargeMunicipal water well - $
8
000 for 700 ft. running
SP,
 gamma
,
neutron
,
induction
,
sonic
,
and density
Drilling Methods
1)
 
Cable tool2
)
 
otary
F
luid Circulation System
W
ater/air for shallow holes
D
rilling mud - water base withcolloidal and silt particles.Additives
:
 (
1)
 
 bentonite - viscosity control(2
)
 
 barite - density control(3
)
 
salt - retards clay swelling & evaporite dissolution
Mud Serves Many Purposes
a
)
 
Lubrication (drill bit and string
)
  b
)
 
Cuttings removalc
)
 
Maintain borehole pressure (prevents blowouts
,
fluidescape
,
breakouts
)
 d
)
 
Entrained hydrocarbons in cuttings (mud logging
)
 e
)
 
P
ermeable formation identification
Drilling Artifacts That Affect Well Logs
y
 
ugosity - hole diameter varies with depth
y
 
S
loughing - swelling of clay into hole
y
 
eyseats - wider hole where it intersects joints
Well Completion
W
ater 
W
ells
:
flushing
,
screen installation
,
gravel pack 
,
 grout or bentonite backfill
,
development
,
pump installation.Oil
W
ells
:
hydrofracturing or acid injection
,
casing
,
bottom plug
,
perforation
,
pump installation (logs may be runseveral times during these phases
)
.
Logging ProcedureLogging truck contains:
a.
 
measure wheel (has magnetic markers on cable
)
  b.
 
cable or wireline (armored and insulated
)
 c.
 
logging tool (hangs from end of cable
)
 
Logging tool consists of:
 a.
 
 bridle (may contain electrodes
)
  b.
 
cable head (with weak pt.
)
 c.
 
cartridge (power supply
,
amps
,
microprocessors
)
 d.
 
sensors or sonde- oil field sondes are often 20 ft or longer - for hydrological or geotechnical they are a few feet- slimline sonde less than 2 inches in diameter e.
 
spring or centering devicef.
 
a gamma ray sensor may be added between the headand cartridge
Depth Monitoring
Common oil well reference point
:
top of the
.B (
ellyBushing
)
 
W
ater well depths may be referenced to top of casing or ground level.
Methods of measuring depths
- count rotations of the measure wheel - recordingodometer - check with magnetic marks on cable armor 
 
Page
2
of 
46
 
- corrections for cable stretching every
1
00 ft.- gamma-ray marker beds and casing collars may be used(calibrate depth with known formations
)
 
Common errors in depth
1
.
 
sticking of tool or cable (see tension log
)
 2.
 
sloppiness - operator inattendance3.
 
error in tool length4.
 
memorizer error 
Typical Logging Procedure
- Usually log from the bottom of the hole to the top to keepcable tension more even (exceptions are temperature andfluid conductivity logs where you want minimal fluiddisturbance
)
and to check the total depth of the hole to seeif depth error exists before loggingHeader - needs to be filled out before logs are completed (inthe field!
)
 
Calibration of logsBasic principles
- calibrate before and after logs are run- calibrate over the entire range of measured values- should be presented with log or on separate log
Calibration for various types of log techniques
(a
)
 
electrical logs - standard resistor (b
)
 
nuclear logs - blocks placed around detectors in field
,
 to mimic laboratory response
,
aluminum or paraffin jigs(c
)
 
sonic logs - downhole is best
,
using a knownformation(d
)
 
caliper - use steel rings of set diameter - or by repeated runs over a standard hole
Log Presentation
- may be linear 
,
linear-log
,
or log scale- if linear resistivity
,
usually have at least 2 scales for overshoot and conductivity
T
rack 
1
will contain one of the following
:
 caliper 
,
 
SP,
natural gamma
,
fluid conductivity/resistivity
,
 cable tension
T
racks 2 & 3 will each have one of the following
:
 density (increasing right
),
porosity (increasing left
),
 resistivity (increasing right
),
conductivity (increasing left
),
 travel time (increasing left
),
compensation corrections
,
 tension
Quality control on logs
1)
 
Be there when the log is run.2
)
 
Check for headers
,
scales
,
remarks
,
scale changes3
)
 
S
upervise calibration - have some idea of what toexpect from the log4
)
 
Use a service company with a good reputation andwhose operators are also interpreters.
D
o not accept"black-box" technology.5
)
 
Units - industry standards6
)
 
eceive basic measurements in digital format for your own replotting. (e.g. #cps instead of neutron porosity
)
 
Definitions
W
ellbore environment
:
Figure
1
in A and GMud cake - deposited by invading fluidMud filtrate - fluid that invades formationFlushed zone - no formation water left
,
completelyinvaded (some hydrocarbons may be left though
)
 
T
ransition zone - mud filtrate and formation fluidUninvaded - virgin formation fluidGeneral symbols to be used
P
orosity
:
phi = pore volume / total volume (interconnected pores = effective
P)
 
D
egree of saturation
:
 
S
w
= volume pore water / total porevolume
S
h
= volume hydrocarbons / total pore volumeHydraulic Conductivity -
= water volume / unit area inunit time
clay
~
1
0
-
8
cm/s
sand
~
1
0
-4
cm/s
P
ermeability
:
a
(intrinsic or absolute
),
the ease of transmission for any fluid
elative permeability-- permeability when 2 pore fluids are present
= k 
a
(rho
)
g / mu where rho = density
,
mu = dynamicviscositymeasured in
D
arcy's (
D)
=
1
cm
3
fluid /
1
cm
2
*
1
soil/gas reservoirs - m
D
 
DRILLING
F
LUID
In geotechnical engineering
,
drilling fluid is a fluid used toaid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. Often used whiledrilling oil and natural gas wells and on exploration drillingrigs
,
drilling fluids are also used for much simpler  boreholes
,
such as water wells. Liquid drilling fluid is oftencalled drilling mud.
T
he three main categories of drillingfluids are water-based muds (which can be dispersed andnon-dispersed
),
non-aqueous muds
,
usually called oil-basedmud
,
and gaseous drilling fluid
,
in which a wide range of gases can be used.
T
he main functions of drilling fluids include providinghydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluids fromentering into the well bore
,
keeping the drill bit cool andclean during drilling
,
carrying out drill cuttings
,
andsuspending the drill cuttings while drilling is paused andwhen the drilling assembly is brought in and out of the hole.
T
he drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected toavoid formation damage and to limit corrosion.
 
Page
3
of 
46
 
Types of drilling fluid
F
unction
2.
1
 
emove cuttings from well2.2
S
uspend and release cuttings2.3 Control formation pressures2.4
S
eal permeable formations2.5 Maintain wellbore stability2.6 Minimizing formation damage2.7 Cool
,
lubricate
,
and support the bit and drillingassembly2.
8
 
T
ransmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit2.
9
Ensure adequate formation evaluation2.
1
0 Control corrosion (in acceptable level
)
 2.
11
Facilitate cementing and completion2.
1
2 Minimize impact on environment
y
 
3 Composition of drilling mud
y
 
4 Mud engineer 
y
 
5 Compliance engineer 
y
 
6
S
ee also
y
 
7
eferences
y
 
8
Further reading
T
he main functions of drilling fluids include;
P
roviding hydrostatic pressure
,
 
T
o prevent formation fluids from entering into the well bore
,
 
eeping the drill bit cool and clean during drilling
,
 Carrying out drill cuttings and suspending the drill cuttingswhile drilling is paused and the drilling assembly is broughtin and out of the hole.
T
he drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected to avoid formation damage and tolimit corrosion.
Types of drilling fluid
Many types of drilling fluids are used on a day-to-day basis.
S
ome wells require that different types be used at different parts in the hole
,
or that some types be used in combinationwith others.
T
he various types of fluid generally fall into afew broad categories
:
[1]
 
y
 
Air 
:
Compressed air is pumped either down the bore hole's annular space or down the drill stringitself.
y
 
Air/water 
:
 
T
he same as above
,
with water added toincrease viscosity
,
flush the hole
,
provide morecooling
,
and/or to control dust.
y
 
Air/polymer 
:
A specially formulated chemical
,
 most often referred to as a type of polymer 
,
isadded to the water & air mixture to create specificconditions. A foaming agent is a good example of a polymer.
y
 
W
ater 
:
 
W
ater by itself is sometimes used.
y
 
W
ater-based mud (
W
BM
):
A most basic water- based mud system begins with water 
,
then claysand other chemicals are incorporated into the water to create a homogenous blend resemblingsomething between chocolate milk and a malt(depending on viscosity
)
.
T
he clay (called "shale"in its rock form
)
is usually a combination of nativeclays that are suspended in the fluid while drilling
,
 or specific types of clay that are processed and soldas additives for the
W
BM system.
T
he mostcommon of these is
bentonite,
frequently referredto in the oilfield as "gel". Gel likely makesreference to the fact that while the fluid is being pumped
,
it can be very thin and free-flowing (likechocolate milk 
),
though when pumping is stopped
,
 the static fluid builds a "gel" structure that resistsflow.
W
hen an adequate pumping force is appliedto "break the gel"
,
flow resumes and the fluidreturns to its previously free-flowing state. Manyother chemicals (e.g. potassium formate
)
are addedto a
W
BM system to achieve various effects
,
 including
:
viscosity control
,
shale stability
,
enhancedrilling rate of penetration
,
cooling and lubricatingof equipment.
y
 
Oil-based mud (OBM
):
Oil-based mud can be amud where the base fluid is a petroleum productsuch as diesel fuel. Oil-based muds are used for many reasons
,
some being increased lubricity
,
 enhanced shale inhibition
,
and greater cleaningabilities with less viscosity. Oil-based muds alsowithstand greater heat without breaking down.
T
heuse of oil-based muds has special considerations.
T
hese include cost and environmentalconsiderations.
y
 
S
ynthetic-based fluid (
S
BM
):
 
S
ynthetic-based fluidis a mud where the base fluid is a synthetic oil.
T
hisis most often used on offshore rigs because it hasthe properties of an oil-based mud
,
but the toxicityof the fluid fumes are much less than an oil-basedfluid.
T
his is important when men work with thefluid in an enclosed space such as an offshoredrilling rig.On a drilling rig
,
mud is pumped from the
mud pits
throughthe drill string where it sprays out of nozzles on the drill bit
,
 cleaning and cooling the drill bit in the process.
T
he mudthen carries the crushed or cut rock ("cuttings"
)
up theannular space ("annulus"
)
between the drill string and thesides of the hole being drilled
,
up through the surface
casing,
where it emerges back at the surface. Cuttings arethen filtered out with either a
[
shale shaker 
],
or the newer shale conveyor technology
,
and the mud returns to the
mud  pits
.
T
he mud pits let the drilled "fines" settle; the pits arealso where the fluid is treated by adding chemicals andother substances.
T
he returning mud can contain natural gases or other flammable materials which will collect in and around theshale shaker / conveyor area or in other work areas.Because of the risk of a fire or an explosion if they ignite
,
 special monitoring sensors and explosion-proof certified

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