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Floyd (Chapter Summary)

Floyd (Chapter Summary)

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Published by Kei Malicdem

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Published by: Kei Malicdem on Aug 06, 2011
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Chapter 1 Summary (Introduction to Semiconductors)
 
According to the classical Bohr model, the atom is viewed as having a planetary-typestructure with electrons orbiting at various distances around the central nucleus.
 
The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. The protons have a positive chargeand the neutrons are uncharged. The number of protons is the atomic number of the atom.
 
Electrons have a negative charge and orbit around the nucleus at distances that depend ontheir energy level. An atom has discrete bands of energy called
shells
in which the electronsorbit. Atomic structure allows a certain maximum number of electrons in each shell. Theseshells are designated 1, 2, 3, and so on. In their natural state, all atoms are neutral becausethey have an equal number of protons and electrons.
 
The outermost shell or band of an atom is called the
valence band 
, and electrons that orbit inthis band are called
valence electrons
. These electrons have the highest energy of all those inthe atom. If a valence electron acquires enough energy from an outside source such as heat, itcan jump out of the valence band and break away from its atom.
 
Insulating materials have very few free electrons and do not conduct current at all undernormal circumstances. Semiconductive materials fall in between conductors and insulators intheir ability to conduct current.
 
Materials that are conductors have a large number of free electrons and conduct current verywell.
 
Semiconductor atoms have four valence electrons. Silicon is the most widely usedsemiconductive material.
 
Semiconductor atoms bond together in a symmetrical pattern to form a solid material called a
crystal
. The bonds that hold a crystal together are called
covalent bonds
. Within the crystalstructure, the valence electrons that manage to escape from their parent atom are called
conduction electrons
or
 free electrons
. They have more energy than the electrons in thevalence band and are free to drift throughout the material.
 
When an electron breaks away to become free, it leaves a hole in the valence band creatingwhat is called an
electron-hole pair 
. These electron-hole pairs are thermally producedbecause the electron has acquired enough energy from external heat to break away from itsatom.
 
A free electron will eventually lose energy and fall back into a hole. This is called
recombination
. But, electron-hole pairs are continuously being thermally generated so thereare always free electrons in the material.
 
When a voltage is applied across the semiconductor, the thermally produced free electronsmove in a net direction and form the current. This is one type of current in an intrinsic (pure)semiconductor.
 
Another type of current is the hole current. This occurs as valence electrons move from holeto hole creating, in effect, a movement of holes in the opposite direction.
 
An
n
-type semiconductive material is created by adding impurity atoms that have five valenceelectrons. These impurities are
 pentavalent 
atoms. A
 p
-type semiconductor is created byadding impurity atoms with only three valence electrons. These impurities are
trivalent 
atoms.
 
The process of adding pentavalent or trivalent impurities to a semiconductor is called
doping
.
 
The majority carriers in an
n
-type semiconductor are free electrons acquired by the dopingprocess, and the minority carriers are holes produced by thermally generated electron-holepairs. The majority carriers in a
 p
-type semiconductor are holes acquired by the doping
 
process, and the minority carriers are free electrons produced by thermally generatedelectron-hole pairs.
 
A
 pn
junction is formed when part of a material is doped
n
-type and part of it is doped
 p
-type.A depletion region forms starting at the junction that is devoid of any majority carriers. Thedepletion region is formed by ionization.
 
The barrier potential is typically 0.7 V for a silicon diode and 0.3 V for germanium.
 
There is current through a diode only when it is forward-biased. Ideally, there is no currentwhen there is no bias nor when there is reverse bias. Actually, there is a very small current inreverse bias due to the thermally generated minority carriers, but this can usually beneglected.
 
Avalanche occurs in a reverse-biased diode if the bias voltage equals or exceeds thebreakdown voltage.
 
A diode conducts current when forward-biased and blocks current when reversed-biased.
 
Reverse breakdown voltage for a diode is typically greater than 50 V.
 
An ideal diode presents an open when reversed-biased and a short when forward-biased.
 
The
V-I 
characteristic curve shows the diode current as a function of voltage across the diode.
 
The resistance of a forward-biased diode is called the dynamic or ac resistance.
 
Reverse current increases rapidly at the reverse breakdown voltage.
 
Reverse breakdown should be avoided in most diodes.
 
The ideal model represents the diode as a closed switch in forward bias and as an open switchin reverse bias.
 
The practical model represents the diode as a switch in series with the barrier potential.
 
The complete model includes the dynamic forward resistance in series with the practicalmodel in forward bias and the reverse resistance in parallel with the open switch in reversebias.
 
Many DMMs provide a diode test function.
 
DMMs display the diode drop when the diode is operating properly in forward bias.
 
Most DMMs indicate “OL” when the diode is open.
Chapter 2 Summary (Diode Applications)
 
The single diode in a half-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the inputcycle.
 
The output frequency of a half-wave rectifier equals the input frequency.
 
PIV (peak inverse voltage) is the maximum voltage appearing across the diode in reversebias.
 
Each diode in a full-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the input cycle.
 
The output frequency of a full-wave rectifier is twice the input frequency.
 
The two basic types of full-wave rectifier are center-tapped and bridge.
 
The peak output voltage of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is approximately one-half of the total peak secondary voltage less one diode drop.
 
The PIV for each diode in a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is twice the peak output voltageplus one diode drop.
 
The peak output voltage of a bridge rectifier equals the total peak secondary voltage less twodiode drops.
 
 
The PIV for each diode in a bridge rectifier is approximately half that required for anequivalent center-tapped configuration and is equal to the peak output voltage plus one diodedrop.
 
A capacitor-input filter provides a dc output approximately equal to the peak of its rectifiedinput voltage.
 
Ripple voltage is caused by the charging and discharging of the filter capacitor.
 
The smaller the ripple voltage, the better the filter.
 
Regulation of output voltage over a range of input voltages is called
input 
or
line regulation
.
 
Regulation of output voltage over a range of load currents is called
load regulation
.
 
Diode limiters cut off voltage above or below specified levels. Limiters are also called
clippers
.
 
Diode clampers add a dc level to an ac voltage.
 
A dc power supply typically consists of an input transformer, a diode rectifier, a filter, and aregulator.
 
Voltage multipliers are used in high-voltage, low-current applications such as for electronbeam acceleration in CRTs and for particle accelerators.
 
A voltage multiplier uses a series of capacitor/diode stages.
 
Input voltage can be doubled, tripled, or quadrupled.
 
A data sheet provides key information about the parameters and characteristics of anelectronic device.
 
A diode should always be operated below the absolute maximum ratings specified on the datasheet.
 
Troubleshooting is the application of logical thought combined with a thorough knowledge of the circuit or system to identify and correct a malfunction.
 
Troubleshooting is a three-phase process of analysis, planning, and measurement.
 
Fault analysis is the isolation of a fault to a particular circuit or portion of a circuit.
Chapter 3 Summary (Special-Purpose Diodes)
 
The zener diode operates in reverse breakdown.
 
There are two breakdown mechanisms in a zener diode: avalanche breakdown and zenerbreakdown.
 
When
Z
< 5 V, zener breakdown is predominant.
 
When
Z
> 5 V, avalanche breakdown is predominant.
 
A zener diode maintains a nearly constant voltage across its terminals over a specified rangeof zener currents.
 
Zener diodes are used as voltage references, regulators, and limiters.
 
Zener diodes are available in many voltage ratings ranging from 1.8 V to 200 V.
 
A varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor under reverse-bias conditions.
 
The capacitance of a varactor varies inversely with reverse-bias voltage.
 
The current regulator diode keeps its forward current at a constant specified value.
 
The Schottky diode has a metal-to-semiconductor junction. It is used in fast-switchingapplications.
 
The tunnel diode is used in oscillator circuits.
 
An LED emits light when forward-biased.

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