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2011 Imo Official Solutions

2011 Imo Official Solutions

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IMO 2011 shortlist: the final 6
For the International Mathematical Olympiad 2011 the problem selection com-mittee prepared the “shortlist” consisting of 30 problems and answers. Thefollowing pages contain the 6 problems that were chosen by the jury as contestproblems.The formulation of the 6 problems given here is the formulation from theshortlist. The wording of the actual contest problems is slightly different (see
www.imo-official.com
).The remaining 24 problems on the shortlist will be released for public viewingafter the IMO 2012.The problem selection committee consisted of Bart de Smit (chairman), Ilya Bogdanov, Johan Bosman,Andries Brouwer, Gabriele Dalla Torre, eza os,Hendrik Lenstra, Charles Leytem, Ronald van Luijk,Christian Reiher, Eckard Specht, Hans Sterk, Lenny Taelman
 
52nd IMO 2011
Problem 1 (Mexico)
For any set
A
=
{
a
1
,a
2
,a
3
,a
4
}
of four distinct positive integers with sum
s
A
=
a
1
+
a
2
+
a
3
+
a
4
,let
p
A
denote the number of pairs (
i,j
) with 1
i < j
4 for which
a
i
+
a
 j
divides
s
A
. Amongall sets of four distinct positive integers, determine those sets
A
for which
p
A
is maximal.
Problem 2 (United Kingdom)
Let
be a finite set of at least two points in the plane. Assume that no three points of 
arecollinear. By a
windmill 
we mean a process as follows. Start with a line
going through apoint
. Rotate
clockwise around the
pivot 
until the line contains another point
Q
of 
. The point
Q
now takes over as the new pivot. This process continues indefinitely, withthe pivot always being a point from
.Show that for a suitable
and a suitable starting line
containing
, the resultingwindmill will visit each point of 
as a pivot infinitely often.
Problem 3 (Belarus)
Let
be a function from the set of real numbers to itself that satisfies
(
x
+
y
)
yf 
(
x
) +
(
(
x
))for all real numbers
x
and
y
. Prove that
(
x
) = 0 for all
x
0.
Problem 4 (Iran)
Let
n >
0 be an integer. We are given a balance and
n
weights of weight 2
0
, 2
1
,...,
2
n
1
. In asequence of 
n
moves we place all weights on the balance. In the first move we choose a weightand put it on the left pan. In each of the following moves we choose one of the remainingweights and we add it either to the left or to the right pan. Compute the number of ways inwhich we can perform these
n
moves in such a way that the right pan is never heavier than theleft pan.
Problem 5 (Iran)
Let
be a function from the set of integers to the set of positive integers. Suppose that forany two integers
m
and
n
, the difference
(
m
)
(
n
) is divisible by
(
m
n
). Prove that forall integers
m
,
n
with
(
m
)
(
n
) the number
(
n
) is divisible by
(
m
).
Problem 6 (Japan)
Let
ABC 
be an acute triangle with circumcircle
ω
. Let
t
be a tangent line to
ω
. Let
t
a
,
t
b
,and
t
c
be the lines obtained by reflecting
t
in the lines
BC 
,
CA
, and
AB
, respectively. Showthat the circumcircle of the triangle determined by the lines
t
a
,
t
b
, and
t
c
is tangent to thecircle
ω
.2
 
52nd IMO 2011
Problem 1 (Mexico)
For any set
A
=
{
a
1
,a
2
,a
3
,a
4
}
of four distinct positive integers with sum
s
A
=
a
1
+
a
2
+
a
3
+
a
4
,let
p
A
denote the number of pairs (
i,j
) with 1
i < j
4 for which
a
i
+
a
 j
divides
s
A
. Amongall sets of four distinct positive integers, determine those sets
A
for which
p
A
is maximal.
Answer.
The sets
A
for which
p
A
is maximal are the sets the form
{
d,
5
d,
7
d,
11
d
}
and
{
d,
11
d,
19
d,
29
d
}
, where
d
is any positive integer. For all these sets
p
A
is 4.
Solution.
Firstly, we will prove that the maximum value of 
p
A
is at most 4. Without lossof generality, we may assume that
a
1
< a
2
< a
3
< a
4
. We observe that for each pair of indices (
i,j
) with 1
i < j
4, the sum
a
i
+
a
 j
divides
s
A
if and only if 
a
i
+
a
 j
divides
s
A
(
a
i
+
a
 j
) =
a
k
+
a
l
, where
k
and
l
are the other two indices. Since there are 6 distinctpairs, we have to prove that at least two of them do not satisfy the previous condition. Weclaim that two such pairs are (
a
2
,a
4
) and (
a
3
,a
4
). Indeed, note that
a
2
+
a
4
> a
1
+
a
3
and
a
3
+
a
4
> a
1
+
a
2
. Hence
a
2
+
a
4
and
a
3
+
a
4
do not divide
s
A
. This proves
p
A
4.Now suppose
p
A
= 4. By the previous argument we have
a
1
+
a
4
a
2
+
a
3
and
a
2
+
a
3
a
1
+
a
4
,a
1
+
a
2
a
3
+
a
4
and
a
3
+
a
4
a
1
+
a
2
,a
1
+
a
3
a
2
+
a
4
and
a
2
+
a
4
a
1
+
a
3
.
Hence, there exist positive integers
m
and
n
with
m > n
2 such that
a
1
+
a
4
=
a
2
+
a
3
m
(
a
1
+
a
2
) =
a
3
+
a
4
n
(
a
1
+
a
3
) =
a
2
+
a
4
.
Adding up the first equation and the third one, we get
n
(
a
1
+
a
3
) = 2
a
2
+
a
3
a
1
. If 
n
3,then
n
(
a
1
+
a
3
)
>
3
a
3
>
2
a
2
+
a
3
>
2
a
2
+
a
3
a
1
. This is a contradiction. Therefore
n
= 2. If we multiply by 2 the sum of the first equation and the third one, we obtain6
a
1
+ 2
a
3
= 4
a
2
,
while the sum of the first one and the second one is(
m
+ 1)
a
1
+ (
m
1)
a
2
= 2
a
3
.
Adding up the last two equations we get(
m
+ 7)
a
1
= (5
m
)
a
2
.
3

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