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Cable Handbook

Cable Handbook

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Published by phuonganh8681

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Published by: phuonganh8681 on Aug 09, 2011
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08/18/2013

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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
SCOPE OF THE THIRD EDITIONThe first edition of the book covered all types of insulated cable for the supply ofelectrical energy for voltages from about 100 V to 525 kV. The second edition covered asimilar range of cables but also reflected the significant changes in materials, theapplication of polymeric cables at higher voltages and the increasing technologycontent of high voltage (HV) transmission systems. Owing to the subsequent extensivegrowth of cables for electronic equipment, and their similarity to some existing energycables, the second edition included a chapter on such applications at lower voltages.The third edition describes the further elimination of the traditional distinctionsbetween materials, the wider use of fire retardant cables and other environmental issues,the significant advances in dielectric materials at high voltages, and the majortechnology developments in supertension systems. High temperature superconductivityis discussed with the emphasis on practical applications.We have resisted calls for a comprehensive coverage of communication cables.Nevertheless the scope of the edition has been widened substantially to include somecommunication cables, in particular the use of optical fibres within energy cables.FORMATThe division into chapters has followed the principles established in the earlier editionsand the specialist contributors have reflected the current patterns for manufacturingand marketing cables. For the benefit of the reader, and for ease of reference, eachchapter is almost self-contained; there is therefore some repetition but it is hoped thatthis is not excessive.
Organisation of the book and the cable industry
There are no sharp distinctions between cable types and applications and in practicethere is considerable overlap; this presents problems in chapter sequence. Operatingvoltage provides a rough guide but does not represent a clear division between cabletypes; nevertheless progress through the book broadly follows increasing voltage.
 
2 Electric Cables Handbook
The cable making industry, together with its relationships with users and standardisingauthorities, was built mainly around specific factories for established groupings of cabletypes. Historically these groupings arose because of the materials used in the cables andthe types of manufacturing plant adopted; size and weight of the cables can be alliedwith the same pattern.The division of the book is set out below.
Part 1
Many aspects of cable design are common to all types; new developments and trends inusage continue to eliminate the traditional distinctions between materials. Part 1 dealsextensively with materials and design features which are reasonably applicable to mostcables.
Part 2
Historically a group of cables generally known as 'wiring and general' grew aroundcables mainly with rubber insulation; these contrasted with power distribution cableswith impregnated paper insulation. Whereas paper cables were usually bought directlyby the end-user, the wiring cables were commonly marketed through distributors andwholesalers. Although the main product types still remain, the insulants used in the twofields are often similar, i.e. thermoplastics and thermosets (rubbers and crosslinkedthermoplastics).These cables are often further subdivided by technology or factory, e.g. cables havingthermoset insulation and sheaths, cables produced in large quantity for specificapplications (such as PVC insulated cables for fixed wiring), and flexible cables.
Part 3
This part describes cables required for public supply and heavy industrial distribution.However, the latter are designed for a wide range of power requirements and do overlappart 2. For example the British Standard for PVC armoured cables for industrial use iscommon to cables covered by parts 2 and 3 of the book. It is common for cables withconductor sizes of 25 mm 2 and above to be classed as power distribution cables.
Part 4
This covers cables for public supply transmission systems, but below 132 kV there issome overlap with part 3. Historically, transmission cables have been of the pressure-assisted paper insulated type and major developments in paper laminated dielectrics areincluded. With the further development of polymeric materials, polyethylene (PE),crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), and EPR are now well established as insulants forvoltages of 132kV and above; they are described in some detail and extend the usecovered earlier in the book.
Part 5
This covers the very specialist, and growing area, of submarine cables; it deals withsystem design, manufacture and installation.
Part 6
This is a new addition to the handbook and reflects the worldwide interest in hightemperature superconductivity (HTS). The background to development at 4K is
 
Introduction 3
covered followed by a description of materials, conductor fabrication, superconductingcables and their economics; the emphasis is on practical applications in powerengineering.
Part 7
This is a new addition and describes the application of optical fibres in powertransmission systems. It begins with the principles of optical fibre transmission and thendescribes the various methods of incorporating fibres into long span power lines.
Part 8
This part brings up to date the chapter on data communication cables from theprevious handbook and includes a chapter on metallic telephone cables.
Appendices
As this edition continues to serve as both a reference book and a handbook thesubstantial list of appendices has been retained. Much of the tabular data presentedprovides information on the range of cables (and their properties) available in the mostwidely used fields. Those engineers dealing with cables on a regular basis will havemanufacturers' catalogues available which give other more detailed information.HISTORICAL SURVEYThis edition gives an up-to-date account of the present position on the types of cableused and their applications; an outline is also given of the stages which have led tocurrent practices. Some of the more important dates and periods which have beensignificant in past developments are indicated in table 1.1. An extensive bibliographyand references are also included.DIFFERENCES IN CABLE DESIGN THROUGHOUT THE WORLDTransmission cable practices are similar throughout the world. For wiring type cablesmany countries have preferences for particular designs or materials but the differencesare not fundamental. Similar preferences apply to distribution cables but there are somemajor differences allied with the systems; these may be divided into two broadcategories: those countries following British and European practice, and those whichhave adopted the USA system designs.There is some overlap between distribution practices but the differences are such thatit was not possible to produce a book which would adequately deal with both. Hencethe coverage, which is mainly for British practice, also reflects the philosophies inEurope and the majority of countries throughout the world.In the British and European systems the distribution cables have been installedunderground in urban areas - hence the avoidance of unsightly poles, wires andoverhead transformers. The USA practices are followed in countries and areas that havebeen more closely allied to the American economy, such as South America and thePhilippines. The most notable difference in these systems is that in urban areas, apartfrom the concept of underground residential distribution (URD), the vast majority of

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