2 Electric Cables Handbook
The cable making industry, together with its relationships with users and standardisingauthorities, was built mainly around specific factories for established groupings of cabletypes. Historically these groupings arose because of the materials used in the cables andthe types of manufacturing plant adopted; size and weight of the cables can be alliedwith the same pattern.The division of the book is set out below.
Many aspects of cable design are common to all types; new developments and trends inusage continue to eliminate the traditional distinctions between materials. Part 1 dealsextensively with materials and design features which are reasonably applicable to mostcables.
Historically a group of cables generally known as 'wiring and general' grew aroundcables mainly with rubber insulation; these contrasted with power distribution cableswith impregnated paper insulation. Whereas paper cables were usually bought directlyby the end-user, the wiring cables were commonly marketed through distributors andwholesalers. Although the main product types still remain, the insulants used in the twofields are often similar, i.e. thermoplastics and thermosets (rubbers and crosslinkedthermoplastics).These cables are often further subdivided by technology or factory, e.g. cables havingthermoset insulation and sheaths, cables produced in large quantity for specificapplications (such as PVC insulated cables for fixed wiring), and flexible cables.
This part describes cables required for public supply and heavy industrial distribution.However, the latter are designed for a wide range of power requirements and do overlappart 2. For example the British Standard for PVC armoured cables for industrial use iscommon to cables covered by parts 2 and 3 of the book. It is common for cables withconductor sizes of 25 mm 2 and above to be classed as power distribution cables.
This covers cables for public supply transmission systems, but below 132 kV there issome overlap with part 3. Historically, transmission cables have been of the pressure-assisted paper insulated type and major developments in paper laminated dielectrics areincluded. With the further development of polymeric materials, polyethylene (PE),crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), and EPR are now well established as insulants forvoltages of 132kV and above; they are described in some detail and extend the usecovered earlier in the book.
This covers the very specialist, and growing area, of submarine cables; it deals withsystem design, manufacture and installation.
This is a new addition to the handbook and reflects the worldwide interest in hightemperature superconductivity (HTS). The background to development at 4K is