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Best Practice Guide CFD 3

Best Practice Guide CFD 3

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Published by: sandiphirade on Sep 24, 2008
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BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINEFOR THE CFD SIMULATION OF FLOWSIN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Edited by:Jörg Franke, Antti Hellsten, Heinke Schlünzen, Bertrand Carissimo
COST Action 732QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPROVEMENT OFMICROSCALE METEOROLOGICAL MODELS
1 May 2007
 
 
Legal notice by the COST OfficeNeither the COST Office nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible forthe use which might be made of the information contained in the presentpublication. The COST Office is not responsible for the external web sitesreferred to in the present publication.Contact:Carine PetitScience OfficerCOST OfficeAvenue Louise 1491050 BrusselsBelgiumTel.: + 32 2 533 38 31Fax: + 32 2 533 38 90E-mail: cpetit@cost.esf.orgEdited by Jörg Franke, Antti Hellsten, Heinke Schlünzen, Bertrand CarissimoContributing authors: Alexander Baklanov, Photios Barmpas, John Bartzis,Ekaterina Batchvarova, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer, Ruwim Berkowicz, CarlosBorrego, Rex Britter, Krzysztof Brzozowski, Jerzy Burzynski, Ana MargaridaCosta, Bertrand Carissimo, Reneta Dimitrova, Jörg Franke, David Grawe,Istvan Goricsan, Antti Hellsten, Zbynek Janour, Ari Karppinen, MatthiasKetzel, Jana Krajcovicova, Bernd Leitl, Alberto Martilli, NicolasMoussiopoulos, Marina Neophytou, Helge Olesen, ChrystallaPapachristodoulou, Matheos Papadakis, Martin Piringer, Silvana di Sabatino,Mats Sandberg, Michael Schatzmann, Heinke Schlünzen, Silvia Trini-Castelli.
©
COST Office, 2007No permission to reproduce or utilize the contents of this book by any meansis necessary, other than in the case of images, diagrams or other materialfrom other copyright holders. In such cases permission of the copyrightholders is required. This book may be cited as:
Title of the book and Action Number 
 ISBN: 3-00-018312-4Distributed byUniversity of HamburgMeteorological InstituteCentre for Marine and Atmospheric SciencesBundesstraße 55D – 20146 Hamburg, Germany
 
 3
Contents
1 Background and Context........................................................................................52 Introduction............................................................................................................63 Modelling errors and uncertainties........................................................................73.1 Simplification of physical complexity...........................................................73.2 Usage of previous data...................................................................................73.3 Physical boundary conditions........................................................................83.4 Geometric boundary conditions.....................................................................84 Numerical errors and uncertainties........................................................................84.1 Computer programming.................................................................................84.2 Computer round-off.......................................................................................94.3 Spatial and temporal discretisation................................................................94.4 Iterative convergence.....................................................................................95 Best Practice Guideline........................................................................................105.1 Review of existing guidelines......................................................................105.2 Choice of target variables............................................................................115.3 Choice of approximate equations describing the physics of the flow.........125.3.1 Steady RANS.......................................................................................135.3.2 Unsteady RANS (URANS)..................................................................145.3.3 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS-LES approaches....155.4 Choice of the geometrical representation of obstacles etc...........................165.5 Choice of the computational domain...........................................................165.5.1 Vertical extension of the domain.........................................................165.5.2 Lateral extension of the domain...........................................................175.5.3 Extension of the domain in flow direction...........................................175.6 Choice of boundary conditions....................................................................185.6.1 Inflow boundary conditions.................................................................185.6.2 Wall boundary conditions....................................................................195.6.3 Top boundary conditions.....................................................................205.6.4 Lateral boundary conditions................................................................215.6.5 Outflow boundary conditions..............................................................215.7 Choice of initial data....................................................................................225.8 Choice of the computational grid.................................................................235.9 Choice of numerical approximations...........................................................255.10 Choice of the time step size.........................................................................265.11 Choice of iterative convergence criteria......................................................266 Conclusions..........................................................................................................267 References............................................................................................................27APPENDIX..................................................................................................................33A Verification of CFD codes and numerical simulation results..............................33A.1. Generalised Richardson extrapolation.........................................................33A.2. Code verification..........................................................................................36A.3. Solution verification (numerical error estimation)......................................38B Examples of Common Practice............................................................................43B.1. Practice of RANS CFD simulation at the AUTH LHTEE..........................43B.1.1. Problem definition...............................................................................43B.1.2. Specification of boundary conditions..................................................44B.1.3. Choice of the turbulence models..........................................................44

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