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330L1

330L1

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Published by roselathika

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Published by: roselathika on Aug 24, 2011
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1Anatomy of a Digital Computer
1.1Introduction
We should keep in mind that a computer is a programmable machine. The twomain characteristics of a computer are: (i) it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. (ii) It can execute a pre-recorded list of instructions (a program). Modern computers are electronic and digital. Theactual machinery - wires, transistors and circuits is called hardware; theinstructions and data are called software. All general purpose computers requirethe following hardware components:(i)Central Processing Unit (CPU): The ‘brainof the computer, thecomponent that actually executes instructions.(ii)Memory : It enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data andprograms.(iii)Input device : Usually a keyboard or mouse is used to read data andprograms into the computer.(iv)Output device: A display screen, printer, etc. that lets you see what thecomputer has accomplished.(v)Mass storage device: It allows a computer to permanently store largeamounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drive andtape drive.In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basiccomponents of a computer to work together efficiently.
 
 2 :: Certificate in Computer Science
1.2Objectives
After going through this lesson, you will be in a position to:
identify the basic components of a computer and their working
explain the importance of various units of a computer
learn how these units work together to accomplish a given job
1.3Functions and Components of a Computer
To function properly, the computer needs both hardware and software. Hardwareconsists of the mechanical and electronic devices, which we can see and touch.The software consists of programs, the operating system and the data that residein the memory and storage devices.A computer does mainly the following four functions:
Receive input —Accept data/information from outside through variousinput devices like the keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc.
Process information—Perform arithmetic or logical operations on data/ information.
Produce output—Communicate information to the outside world throughoutput devices like monitor, printer, etc.
Store information—Store the information in storage devices like harddisk, floppy disks, CD, etc.These four basic functions are responsible for everything that computers do.The hardware components of the computer specialize in any one of thesefunctions.Computer hardware falls into two categories: processing hardware and theperipheral devices. The Processing hardware consists of the Central ProcessingUnit (CPU), and as its name implies, is where the data processing is done.Peripheral devices allow people to interact with the CPU. Together, they makeit possible to use the computer for a variety of tasks. Various parts of thecomputer have been shown in Fig. 1.1
 
 Anatomy of a Digital Computer :: 3
Fig. 1.1 Various Parts of a Computer
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
This part of the computer that executes program instructions is known as theprocessor or Central Processing Unit (CPU). In a microcomputer, the CPU isbased on a single electronic component, the microprocessor chip, within thesystem unit or system cabinet. The system unit also includes circuit boards,memory chips, ports and other components. A microcomputer’s system cabinetwill also house disk drives, hard disks, etc., but these are considered separatefrom the CPU.The CPU has two parts —The Control Unit (CU) and the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU). In a microcomputer, both are on a single microprocessor chip.
Control Unit (CU)
The control unit tells the rest of the computer system how to carry out a program’sinstructions. It directs the movement of electronic signals between memory -which temporarily holds data, instructions and processes information - and theALU. It also directs these control signals between the CPU and input/outputdevices.
Arithmetic - Logic Unit (ALU)
Arithmetic Logic Unit, usually called the ALU, performs two types of operations- arithmetical and logical. Arithmetical operations are the fundamental

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