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Integrated RS & GIS and Its Applications

Integrated RS & GIS and Its Applications

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This book is originally collected from World AgroMeterological Information Service Official site.
This book is originally collected from World AgroMeterological Information Service Official site.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Biswabandan Satpathy on Sep 17, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/01/2013

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SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING AND GISAPPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL METEO-ROLOGY
 
AND WMO SATELLITE ACTIVITIES
M.V.K. Sivakumar and Donald E. Hinsman
 Agricultural Meteorology Division and Satellite Activities OfficeWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO), 7bis Avenue de la Paix,1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland 
Abstract :
Agricultural planning and use of agricultural technologies needapplications of agricultural meteorology. Satellite remote sensing technology isincreasingly gaining recognition as an important source of agrometeorological dataas it can complement well the traditional methods agrometeorological datacollection. Agrometeorologists all over the world are now able to take advantageof a wealth of observational data, product and services flowing from speciallyequipped and highly sophisticated environmental observation satellites. In addition,Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is becoming an essential toolfor combining various map and satellite information sources in models that simulatethe interactions of complex natural systems. The Commission for AgriculturalMeteorology of WMO has been active in the area of remote sensing and GISapplications in agrometeorology. The paper provides a brief overview of the satelliteremote sensing and GIS Applications in agricultural meteorology along with adescription of the WMO Satellite Activities Programme. The promotion of newspecialised software should make the applications of the various devices easier,bearing in mind the possible combination of several types of inputs such as datacoming from standard networks, radar and satellites, meteorological andclimatological models, digital cartography and crop models based on the scientificacquisition of the last twenty years.
INTRODUCTION
Agricultural planning and use of agricultural technologies need applicationof agricultural meteorology. Agricultural weather and climate data systems arenecessary to expedite generation of products, analyses and forecasts that affect
Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Agricultural Meteorology pp. 1-21
 
2
Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Agricultural Meteorolog
agricultural cropping and management decisions, irrigation scheduling,commodity trading and markets, fire weather management and otherpreparedness for calamities, and ecosystem conservation and management.Agrometeorological station networks are designed to observe the data of meteorological and biological phenomena together with supplementary dataas disasters and crop damages occur. The method of observation can becategorized into two major classes, manually observed and automatic weatherstations (AWS). A third source for agrometeorological data that is gainingrecognition for its complementary nature to the traditional methods is satelliteremote sensing technology.Remotely sensed data and AWS systems provide in many ways anenhanced and very feasible alternative to manual observation with a very shorttime delay between data collection and transmission. In certain countries whereonly few stations are in operation as in Northern Turkmenistan (Seitnazarov,1999), remotely sensed data can improve information on crop conditions foran early warning system. Due to the availability of new tools, such asGeographic Information Systems (GIS), management of an incredible quantityof data such as traditional digital maps, database, models etc., is now possible.The advantages are manifold and highly important, especially for the fast cross-sector interactions and the production of synthetic and lucid information fordecision-makers. Remote sensing provides the most important informativecontribution to GIS, which furnishes basic informative layers in optimal timeand space resolutions.In this paper, a brief overview of the satellite remote sensing and GISapplications in agricultural meteorology is presented along with a descriptionof the WMO Satellite Activities Programme. Details of the various applicationsalluded to briefly in this paper, can be found in the informative papersprepared by various experts who will be presenting them in the course of thisworkshop.
The Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM) of WMO, RemoteSensing and GIS
Agricultural meteorology had always been an important component of theNational Meteorological Services since their inception. A formal Commissionfor Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM) which was appointed in 1913 by theInternational Meteorological Organization (IMO), became the foundation of the CAgM under WMO in 1951.
 
M.V.K. Sivakumar and Donald E. Hinsma
3
The WMO Agricultural Meteorology Programme is coordinated byCAgM. The Commission is responsible for matters relating to applications of meteorology to agricultural cropping systems, forestry, and agricultural landuse and livestock management, taking into account meteorological andagricultural developments both in the scientific and practical fields and thedevelopment of agricultural meteorological services of Members by transfer of knowledge and methodology and by providing advice.CAgM recognized the potential of remote sensing applications inagricultural meteorology early in the 70s and at its sixth session in Washingtonin 1974 the Commission agreed that its programme should include studieson the application of remote sensing techniques to agrometeorological problemsand decided to appoint a rapporteur to study the existing state of theknowledge of remote sensing techniques and to review its application toagrometeorological research and services. At its seventh session in Sofia, Bulgariain 1979, the Commission reviewed the report submitted by Dr A.D.Kleschenko (USSR) and Dr J.C. Harlan Jr (USA) and noted that there was apromising future for the use in agrometeorology of data from spacecraft andaircraft and that rapid progress in this field required exchange of informationon achievements in methodology and data collection and interpretation. TheCommission at that time noted that there was a demand in almost all countriesfor a capability to use satellite imagery in practical problems of agrometeorology.The Commission continued to pay much attention to both remote sensingand GIS applications in agrometeorology in all its subsequent sessions up tothe 13
th
session held in Ljubljana, Slovenia in 2002. Several useful publicationsincluding Technical Notes and CAgM Reports were published covering theuse of remote sensing for obtaining agrometeorological information(Kleschenko, 1983), operational remote sensing systems in agriculture(Kanemasu and Filcroft, 1992), satellite applications to agrometeorology andtechnological developments for the period 1985-89 (Seguin, 1992), statementsof guidance regarding how well satellite capabilities meet WMO userrequirements in agrometeorology (WMO, 1998, 2000) etc. At the session inSlovenia in 2002, the Commission convened an Expert Team on Techniques(including Technologies such as GIS and Remote Sensing) for AgroclimaticCharacterization and Sustainable Land Management.The Commission also recognized that training of technical personnel toacquire, process and interpret the satellite imagery was a major task. It wasfelt that acquisition of satellite data was usually much easier than theinterpretation of data for specific applications that were critical for the

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