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Expt. 29 Urine Formation

Expt. 29 Urine Formation

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I. Introduction
Urine formation begins with the movement of plasma ultrafiltrate into the kidneys. This plasmaultrafiltrate is an essentially protein-free fluid which passively passes from the glomerular capillaries intothe Bowman's space. This process is driven by Starling forces. Glomerular filtration is followed byreabsorption of water and solutes from the different parts of the renal tubules, then by the secretion of selected solutes into the renal tubules.
URINE FORMATION
The ability of the kidneys to selectively clear waste products from the blood and simultaneouslymaintain the body’s essential water and electrolyte balances is controlled in the nephron by the followingfunctions: renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.RENAL BLOOD FLOWThe renal artery supplies blood to the kidneys. Blood enters the capillaries of the nephron throughthe afferent arteriole. It then flows through the glomerulus and into the efferent arteriole. Before returningto the renal vein, blood from efferent arteriole enters the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta andflows slowly through the cortex and medulla of the kidney close to the tubules.The proximal convoluted tubule provides the immediate reabsorption of essential substances fromthe fluid, and final adjustment of the urinary composition in the distal convoluted tubule. The vasa rectaare located adjacent to the ascending and descending loop of Henle in the juxtamedullary nephrons. Inthis area, the major exchanges of water and salts take place between the blood and the medullaryinterstitium, which maintains the osmotic gradient in the medulla that is necessary for renal concentration.
 
GLOMERULAR FILTRATIONThe glomerulus consists of a coil approximately eight capillary lobes. It serves as a nonselectivefilter of plasma substances with molecular weights of less than 70,000. Actual filtration process involvesseveral factors including cellular structure of the capillary walls and Bowman’s capsule, hydrostatic andoncotic pressures, and the feedback mechanism of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.TUBULAR REABSORPTIONThe cellular mechanisms involved in tubular reabsorption are active and passive transport.
SUBSTANCELOCATION
Active TransportGlucose, amino acids andsaltsChlorideSodiumProximal convoluted tubuleAscending loop of HenleDistal convoluted tubulePassive TransportWateUreaSodiumProximal convoluted tubule,descending loop of Henle,and collecting tubulesProximal convoluted tubuleand ascending loop of HenleAscending loop of HenleTUBULAR SECRETIONTubular secretion serves two major functions: elimination of waste products not filtered by theglomerulus and regulation of the acid-base balance in the body through the secretion of hydrogen ions.
 
Foreign substances which cannot be filtered by the glomerulus because they are bound to plasma proteins enter the peritubular capillaries, where they dissociate from their carrier proteins because of strong affinity for tubular cells. The major site for removal of the nonfiltered substances is the proximalconvoluted tubule.
CONCENTRATION AND DILUTION OF URINE
The regulation of plasma osmolarity is accomplished by varying the amount of water excreted bythe kidneys. It is due to the response to water deprivation or to water intake. When the osmolality is toolow, nervous and hormonal feedback mechanisms cause the kidneys to excrete a great excess of water inurine causing a dilute urine, but removes water from the body to increase the body fluid osmolality back to normal. When the osmolality of body fluids is too great, the kidneys excrete an excess of solutes toreduce the body fluid osmolality again back to normal, but at the same time excreting a concentratedurine.OSMOLAL CONCENTRATION CHANGES IN THE DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF THE TUBULES
Proximal Tubule
Osmolality of the fluid remains almost exactly equal to that of the glomerular filtrate, 300mOsm/L throughout the entire extent of the proximal tubule.
Loop of Henle
The osmolality rises rapidly because of the countercurrent mechanism. During high concentrationof ADH, the loop of Henle osmolality rises much higher than when a dilute urine is being formed becauseof large quantity of urea that is passively reabsorbed into the medullary interstitium from the collectingducts.
Thick Ascending Limb
The osmolality falls to a very low level usually about 100 mOsm/L.
Late Distal Tubule, Cortical Collecting Duct, and Collecting Duct
The osmolality depends entirely on ADH. In the absence of ADH, very little water is reabsorbed,osmolality remains less than 100 mOsm/L, very dilute urine is formed.In the presence of excess ADH, these segments become highly permeable to water, most of thewater is reabsorbed, thus producing a very concentrated urine.
TESTS DONE ON URINE SPECIMENS
VOLUMEUrine volume depends on the amount of water that the kidneys excrete. The amount excreted isusually determined by the body’s state of hydration. Factors that influence urine volume include fluidintake, fluid loss from nonrenal sources, variations in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and the

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why do you use medine without knowing how
Odax Rukiza added this note
all infomation about anatomy is very clean to evry body but how can express this function of the organism so study how to control you body
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I LIKE THE WAY HOW YOU PRESENT YOUR MATERIALS
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