Non-Government Organization (NGOs) started in this country in a limited scale as relief provides following the devastating cyclone in 1970, which claimed colossal human lives and properties in the coastal belt and the off-shore islands. Devastations caused by the War of Liberation in 1971 prompted other foreign and newly established local NGOs to mount relief andrehabilitation Programs.Recognizing the need for development for alleviating endemic poverty in the country, NGOs began to shift their emphasis from relief to socio-economic development and to pursue –initiallyrather haphazardly Programs aiming at health care, family planning, income generation and self reliance for the disadvantaged and the poor. As poverty continued to deepen and encompass ever larger numbers of people, more foreign NGOs came to work in this country and at the same time,the members of local NGOs grew fast.
Definition of NGO:
Generally speaking, the terminology may be used to include any institution or organizationoutside the Government, and as such, may include political parties, private and commercialenterprises, social and cultural organizations, academic and research institutions, youth andsports clubs, and similar other organizations. In fact the terminology covers all thoseorganizations outside the government, which are involved in various development and welfareactivities with the objective of alleviating poverty of the rural as well as urban poor. InBangladesh, it includes all such organizations and institutions that are registered with theGovernment under the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Council) Ordinance1961 and the Foreign Donation (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Ordinance of 1978.In the contexts of Bangladesh, the term NGO has been defined “as an association of personsformed voluntarily through personal initiatives of a few committed persons dedicated to thedesign, study and implementation of development projects at the grass root level. They functionoutside the government framework but they are bound by and work within the laws of the land.They are variously involved in multi-sectoral development projects combined with researchwelfare services, human capability development through educational training, technologydevelopment m exchange of information and social communication. Their broad objective is poverty alleviation and their target groups are primarily the poor and the disadvantaged.
Types of NGO:
NGOs may be widely classified into the following broad groups, which are functioning inBangladesh.
1. Donor Agencies:
These comprise international NGOs dispensing funds they raise or receive from their governments to various NGOs- national and expatriate-engaged in social, economic anddevelopment activities. Apart from providing funds to the local and national NGOs, some of them implement projects directly. Major such organizations operating in Bangladesh includeOXFAM, Swedish Free Church Aid (SFCA), Canadian University Service Overseas (CUSO),South Asia Partnership (SAP), The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF), etc.